Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Pros and Cons of Having a College Roommate

You may be a first-year student filling out new-student paperwork, trying to decide if youd like a roommate or not. Or you may be a student who has had a roommate for several years and now is interested in living on your own. So how can you decide if having a college roommate is a good idea for your particular situation? Consider the financial aspects. At the end of the day, at least for most college students, theres only so much money to go around. If living in a single / without a roommate will increase the cost of attending college significantly for you, then sticking it out with a roommate for another year (or two or three) is a good idea. If, however, you think you can swing living on your own financially or you think having your own space is worth the extra cost, than not having a roommate might be in the cards. Just think carefully about what any increased costs will mean for your time in school -- and beyond, if you are using loans to finance your education. (Also consider whether you should live on or off campus -- or even in a Greek house -- when factoring in housing and roommate costs.) Think about having a general roommate, not just one person in particular. You may have lived with the same roommate since your first year on campus, so in your mind, the choice is between that person or no one. But that doesnt have to be the case. While its important to consider if you want to live with an old roommate again, its also important to consider whether you want to live with a roommate in general. Have you enjoyed having someone to talk to? To borrow things from? To share stories and laughs with? To help out when you both needed a little lift? Or are you ready for some space and time on your own? Reflect on what you want your college experience to be like. If youre already in college, think back on the memories and experiences youve come to value the most. Who was involved? What made them meaningful for you? And if youre about to start college, think about what you want your college experience to look like. How does having a roommate fit into all of that? Sure, roommates can be a major pain in the brain, but they can also challenge each other to step outside of comfort zones and try new things. Would you have joined a fraternity, for example, had it not been for your roommate? Or learned about a new culture or food? Or attended an on-campus event that really opened your eyes about an important issue? Think about what set-up would best support your academic experience. True, college life involves a lot of learning outside of the classroom. But your primary reason for being in college is to graduate. If youre the type of person who enjoys, say, hanging out in the quad for a little while but really likes to head back to a quiet room to get a few hours of studying done, than perhaps a roommate isnt the best choice for you. That being said, roommates can also make awesome study buddies, motivators, tutors, and even lifesavers when they let you use their laptop when yours breaks 20 minutes before your paper is due. They can also help keep you focused and ensure the room stays a place where you both can study -- even when your friends pop over with other plans. Consider all the ways that having a roommate will have an impact on your academics -- both positively and negatively.

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Slavery And The South America - 896 Words

Slavery and The South The three ads about the slave runaway are seen most of them happing in the 18 and 19th in the Antebellum south and most of the ads are discussed in my paper basically coming from North Carolina. The slave runaway was considered a big issue back in that time especially for the slave owners who are relied on them to make their income and enhance their life economy. As seen on three ads and in reading different sources are pertained to slaves found that The North Carolina are relied on the slavery in terms of economy and social life style due to needing the workforce to support the cotton grown on that time (Johnson, page 2). The named slaves in the ads are Nat, tom and Bob. Based on reading many documents are observed that the black slaves running away from the south to the north sates to get there a free pass or their freedom of the slavery and that explained how much painful and hurtful the slave people had lived and faced in their slavery period of the time in serving their owner and in doing their work on that time. In the three document and ads are clearly mentioned most of the the black salve people stealing the cloth from their owners to head to the different places wherever they can get their free pass of the slavery and be not distinguished with their old or dirty cloth by wearing neat and fancy cloth are stolen in which that will not bring the eyes of the people toward them as escaped. The writers of the three ads are shown in written documentShow MoreRelatedSlavery Issues Of Slavery Between North And South848 Words   |  4 PagesSlavery Issues The issues of slavery between North and South was indirectly the cause of the beginning of civil war. Since the North changed their minds about the black population, they had a difficult time with the South, with they believe that Africans had to serve white people. So the problem between the North and South wasn’t something new, it was happening since the government was trying to prevent spread out of the slavery across America, as a result, South started to create, manipulate, andRead MoreThe Civil War Of The United States956 Words   |  4 PagesThe civil war in the United States of America took place between April 12th 1869 and May 9th 1865. Those are worth a lot of reasons that the North went to war with the south the main reason was slavery. Where the North wanted to either get rid of slavery altogether or stop slavery from spreading to the new states coming into America the South wanted to expand slavery. Slavery has been around since the beginning of time, since back in the old Bible days. America was just one of the last remaining nationsRead MoreHalf Slave And Half Free Essay1277 Words   |  6 Pagesarose during the Antebellum Era in America that fueled the eruption of the Civil War. According to Levine, tension arose due to conflicting interests in the depths of the free-labor based economy of the North and the slave-labor based economy of the South which boiled up to a point that led the newly formed nation to a civil war. Levine starts off by giving a brief history of slavery and shifts to discussing the way in which it revolutionized the economy of America, and the role that it conveyed inRead MoreThe Abolishment of Slavery Essay934 Words   |  4 PagesAbolishment of Slavery Slavery was caused by economic factors of the English settlers in the late 17th century. Colonists continually tried to allure laborers to the colony. The head right system was to give the indentured servant, a method of becoming independent after a number of years of service. Slavery was caused by economic reasons. Colonists chiefly relied on Indentured Servitude, in order to facilitate their need for labor. The decreasing population combined with a need for a labor forceRead More History of The American Civil War Essay1540 Words   |  7 PagesWar The Civil War was a brutal war between the North and South of America over the issue of slavery, which was spurred on by the secession of the southern states from the Union of a America. At the time slavery was one of the main issues in America that caused a disagreement between the north and south and these disagreements about humanity and slaves added to the tension that would finally lead to the out break of war. Slavery was almost totally abolished in the northern states after 1787Read MoreThe Expansion Of The New Nation1477 Words   |  6 Pages In the later half of nineteenth century America, the new nation’s original ability to resolve conflict through means of peaceful compromise had vanished. Various spans of conflict such as Westward Expansion, the Market Revolution, Sectionalism, Mexican American War, the succession of the southern states and ultimately the failure of the Compromise of 1850 that made compromise between the North and the South unattainable. It was the uncompromising differences amongst the free and slave states overRead MoreCivil War the Great Divide814 Words   |  4 PagesGreat Divide The issue of slavery was discussed in many ways. People talked about the morality of the institution (or lack thereof), the economics of slavery, and the political issues that came about because of it. No matter how it was discussed, the North and South could not agree. Northerners thought Southerners were corrupting the soul of America, and Southerners thought Northerners were hypocrites. No matter which way they looked at slavery, the North and South had two antithetical views thatRead MoreThe Cornerstone Speech And The Thomas Nast s Cartoon863 Words   |  4 PagesThomas Nast’s cartoon The American Civil War erupted in 1861 due to the constitutional and ideological differences between the Northern and the Southern states. The North advocated for equality and protection of human rights. On the other hand, the South considered the white to be more equal than the blacks. There are two historical documents that bring out the picture of the United States during the 1860s. The documents are the cornerstone speech by Alexander H. Stephens and the editorial cartoonRead MoreEssay on Slavery In American History1430 Words   |  6 Pagesthe drive to abolish slavery. ¡Ã‚ ± Abolition Movement was not only meaningful to itself, that is, slavery was abolished and black slaves were freed, but also meaningful to the whole nation, because it exerted much influences on American society and economy. In this paper, I will firstly present a brief introduction about slaves in North American. Secondly, I ¡Ã‚ ¯d like to unfold a systematic picture of Abolition Movement. Finally, I will summarize this movement ¡Ã‚ ¯s influences on America from two aspects,Read MoreIssues Dividing America Conveyed in Speeches The Clay Compromise Measures, On the Clay Compromise and The Higher Law Speech1014 Words   |  5 PagesEver since the origin of America, the country had several issues that were in need of immediate attention. The Clay Compromise Measures, On the Clay Compromise, and The Higher Law Speech, each demonstrate, through the speakers, that America was not always a free and just nation, granted that it was founded to be a Christian nation. The two foremost proble ms were the issue of slavery, and also the inequality in the relationship between North and South. Due to the predicaments, the two distinct parts

Monday, December 9, 2019

National Cultural Dimensions System †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the National Cultural Dimensions System. Answer: Introduction: Thomas Friedman in his concept of globalisation highlighted three distinct stages. First stage focussed on expansion of companies(Christopherson, 2008). Second stage of globalisation focussing on countries globalising and third phase on individual globalising. At each stage of globalisation, focus is on extension of capabilities and gaining from resources of others. The most important phase of globalisation is now, which is expected to continue in the future. This last phase has individuals wanting to explore the world for the purpose of their benefits. If an idea exists and there are possibilities to explore and develop on those ideas then individuals will do so instead of waiting. Waiting on an opportunity can lead to significant wastage of time, hence the iron rule is to get things done or opportunities turned into business ideas. In case an individual waits for an opportunity for a time period then another individual might pick up on that idea and implement it to reap benefits fr om it(Rugman, 2008). There are several instances of businesses in the flat world that have been borne out of ideas, concepts or perceptions. Thus, the major drawback or risks living in a flat world can be losing out on a substantial time period, which will in turn lead to losing of the business opportunity in itself. There is immense competition amongst individuals, who are exploring new set of ideas, concepts which can be applied to create sustainable advantage for business growth in the future. Major drawback in a flat world can include not implementing a preconceived idea or thought that could turn into a possible opportunity for the future(Friedman, Retrieved on 25th August 2017). Friedman explains that in a flattened world each factor comes together for spreading their roots to create an environment that is conducive to flattening of the structure. Creation of complementary software and internet in political environment of developing countries have created perfect ambience to k eep up with pace of globalisation. Globalisation has changed and transformed from a historical era of the day of Columbus to the present state. Globalisation has been further seen to be understood while diagnosing the concepts of outsourcing and offshoring. Friedman in his work focussed individuals involvement for forming a part of the whole. Competition is important in this flat world as it has trickled down from countries, to companies and now extending to individuals. Individuals in this globalised world acts on their own, instead of associating themselves with specific country or company(Jones, 2010). Imaginations and concepts are transformed at a more rapid rate in a faster, deeper, father and cheaper means than it was earlier. Primarily the concept was focussed on shaping business and competition in technologically driven global environment. Individuals are planning ways and means such that they can stay ahead of the competition. There is presently immense and rapid flow of in formation that is being exchanged online, which depicts effect of businesses to perform responsibilities from across varied locations, tax preparations and other methods. Friedman has visualised the world to be moving at a much faster rate than anyone can cope up with, providing a fast-evolving economic platform. Individuals are becoming more collaborative, competitive and are able to share different cultures, educational background and religions(Friedman T. , 2007). There are however various potential threats that could inflict harm on the flattened world, which primarily includes threats from terrorism as from Al-Qaeda operations which drives scare and panic amongst individuals. Friedman identifies the ten forces that has led to flattening of the world. they are, collapse of the Berlin Wall, Netscape, Work Flow Software, Uploading, Outsourcing, Offshoring, Supply-Chaining, Insourcing, In-forming and Steroids(Cieslik, 2009). The myth of national culture Professor McSweeneys view of national cultures are divided and sub-divided into sub-cultures. His study established that countries have cultural sub-sets and hence every country is an integration of various micro-locational cultures(McSweeney B. , 2002). Hofstedes view on a national having a culture in totality cannot be accepted and according to me McSweeney offers a more compelling thought of each country having a culture of its own. In Australian alone there is culture of Aboriginals and Islander Strait people, Westernised culture, culture of immigrants settled in the country(Hofstede, 2010). Hence, assuming that Australias entire culture is Westernised will not be acceptable. In case feedback regarding any specific topic is obtained from people of different sub-cultures there is bound to be difference in opinion and thought processed. Geert Hofstedes view on national culture was obtained from a group that was mentally prepared to deliver results. Further, the dimensions proposed by Hofstede as individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus feminity and so on can be applied onto sub-cultural sets(McSweeney P. B., Retrieved on 25th August 2017). A nation is bound to have a population of varying cultures, as in Australia Indigenous people have varied individualism index as compared to westernised Australian population. Conclusion Thomas Friedmans globalisation concepts are highly accredited across organisations and individuals wanting to extend their core competencies. Emergence of flat world has led to creation and generation of innovative business concepts that are applied to gain advantage from market opportunities. The second activity, is regarding agreeing to Thomas Friedmans idea of the flat world. It can be assumed that world has become flattened with establishing of core competencies and capabilities across various domains from individuals. Extensions of individual capabilities have led to emergence of creating the world in a flattened manner. Hofstedes study thus provides a broad based views for cultural analysis compared to McSweeney. Views on national cultures as proposed by McSweeney are much more compelling and can be applied onto various sub-cultural groups. Thus, McSweeneys views are much more applicable and hence acceptable. Reference Lists Christopherson, S. G. (2008). The world is not flat: putting globalization in its place. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 343-349. Cieslik, T. F. (2009). Greater China in an era of globalization. . Lexington Books. Friedman. (Retrieved on 25th August 2017). Globalisation Era. . Friedman, T. (2007). The world is flat 3.0. A World History. Hofstede, G. (2010). 'Geert Hofstede.', National cultural dimensions. Jones, A. (2010). Globalization: key thinkers (Vol. 1). Polity. McSweeney, B. (2002). The essentials of scholarship: A reply to Geert Hofstede. Human relations, 55(11), 1363-1372. McSweeney, P. B. (Retrieved on 25th August 2017). National Cultures. Rugman, A. . (2008). Friedman's follies: Insights on the globalization/regionalization debate. Business and Politics, 1-14.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Pro spanking in schools

Introduction Pro spanking is a form of punishment that is encouraged by only a few in the 21st century; however this was a common practice in the early years. Those who advocate for corporal punishment, base their arguments on the need to discipline children, as an effective form of child rearing. Needless to say, pro-spanking is a debatable issue, which depends on how parents and teachers define this practice.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Pro spanking in schools specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, some parents may define pro spanking as a mere slap, while others see the need to hit the child severally. Needless to say, in a society where crime rate is high, suspension alone, is not effective in cases of indiscipline in school; therefore, there is need to advocate for pro spanking as a form of discipline. This paper will discuss the importance of encouraging pro spanking in school. Advocating for pr o-spanking in schools Many countries such as the United States and Sweden have declared that corporal punishment has harmful effects on children; however these countries have suffered the consequences that arise from the ban of spanking. Kettle argues that since the ban of spanking in Sweden, child abuse rates rose over 500%, as a result the Swedish parents resulted to beating up their children, compared to the United States children, (Para 7). Deprivation of privileges and suspension as forms of punishment for children are not effective compared to pro- spanking. Pro spanking enables the child to understand the power of a teacher and his position. In addition, a child’s fear of pro spanking will act as a mechanism of maintaining discipline. The use of spanking in schools can only be effective when used appropriately as a disciplinary action; however over-using spanking may create a wrong impression for the student. Inflicting severe pain on a child, which leaves wounds and c uts is unacceptable and affect emotional well being of a child. However the correct use of spanking enables a student to understand his mistakes and avoid indiscipline practices. Millei, Griffiths and Parkers, emphasize on the need for behavior management, discipline, and management of the learning environment, therefore teachers result to different mechanisms of improving discipline, (2). As a result, discipline in schools maintains high standards, however it is important for the society to note the difference between pro spanking and physical abuse. Spanking causes pain to the targeted student, which aims at correcting his unethical behavior, whilst physical abuse involves use of force by an adult that can cause injury to the child, (Chang, Pettit, and Katsurada, 282).Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A study which involved interviewing college students regarding their attitudes towa rds spanking, revealed that: the respondents supported physical punishment in cases of indiscipline, (Chang, Pettit, and Katsurada, 282). Currently spanking is legal in several states of the United States, despite several critics facing pro spanking such as; a form of abuse, negative emotional effects and aggressive behaviors, discipline must be maintained. However pro spanking should not be misused, as it may create confusion among students, this traditional form of discipline should not be banned. Currently, it is the only method that can be successful, once used correctly. The book of proverbs 23:13 advocates for a child‘s discipline, whereby a guardian is encourage to embrace discipline, by the use of a rod, (Anthony and Canfield, 78). Refusal to embrace a child’s indiscipline practices, but instead administer punishment is a sign of love, once a minor learns that there are consequences for his actions; he will be reluctant to engage in unethical behavior. When a ch ild’s unethical behaviors are ignored by the school administration, there is a high probability that a child may not learn the importance of ethics; as a result, the possibility of delinquent behavior is high. Needless to say compared to other forms of discipline such as suspending, expelling or grounding a child, which all have short-term effects, pro-spanking has immediate effects and can be administered both in school and at home. When teachers administer pro spanking, wise students are capable of avoiding certain behaviors, which are likely to elicit punishment; in addition compliance from the child is fostered. Pro spanking in schools is a cost effective method of discipline, which does not require extra costs to maintain or administer, as compared to rehabilitation which may require high costs. Finally, a child can be disciplined with love at school, through the use of pro-spanking, when a teacher explains to the student the reason behind spanking, the student will avoi d any behavior that could lead to the same experience, which inflicts pain. Conclusion Effective use of pro spanking in schools, fosters discipline, only if administered in non-abusive forms, which are safe and effective. When students learn that pro spanking can only be administered following indsciplinary actions, they will be in a position to accept the consequences of their actions.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Pro spanking in schools specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Needless to say, pro- spanking in schools must be handled with care, thereafter, positive character will be achieved in children. In addition, use of pro- spanking as a form of disciplining students in school, influences high grades, this is because the child is likely to devote his time on books, rather than in mischievous behavior. Works Cited Anthony, M. and Canfield, K. A Theology for Family Ministry: B. H. Publishing Group, 2011. Web. C hang, I. J., Pettit, R. and Katsurada, E. â€Å"Where and When to Spank: A Comparison between U.S. And Japanese College Students.† Journal of Family Violence: Springer Science+Business Media, Inc, (2006) 21:281–286.Web. Kettle, T. Pro-Spanking Studies May Have Global Effect. NewsMax, 2010. Web. Millei, G., Griffiths, T., and Paerkes, R. Re-Theorizing Discipline in Education: Problems, Politics, Possibilities: Peter Lang Publishers, 2010. Web. This essay on Pro spanking in schools was written and submitted by user Rivka Moreno to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

5 5-Paragraph Essay Topics Meet the Top Popular Issues to Debate!

5 5-Paragraph Essay Topics Meet the Top Popular Issues to Debate! A 5-paragraph essay is a standard writing for schools and universities which in its specific form implements the structured text consisting of five paragraphs. That is where the name comes from. Such papers are mostly used to discuss various points and for this reason always have a strong argumentative constituent. Therefore when choosing a topic for a five paragraph essay one needs to remember that the subject needs to involve some ambivalence or have several points of view at the subject that might be disclosed. The 5-paragraph essay topic must enable you to draw strong argument to support or reject it so that the effects on the reader you are aiming at is reached. Most of the time students choose some popular or urgent social issues that are rather disputable to be the subject of their five paragraph essay. The diversity of such topics can spread from social minorities to world affairs and a very important advantage here is that there always exist several standpoints opening a good perspective for strong convincing arguments. The structure of a five paragraph essay is purposely set that way when every paragraph starting with the introduction is leading through the topic building up on the argument to present you a concluding viewpoint. Nevertheless choosing a good topic is a key factor on the way to successful essay. Since such type of writing does not involve any detailed description and broad discussion the topic should preferably be brief but catchy and known to the majority of the poten tial readers. Whenever you are going to write a five paragraph essay start with a thorough topic selection which will play its part in the whole writing process and help you create a good paper.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Ways to De-Stress in College

Ways to De-Stress in College Knowing how to destress can make all the difference between a crazed college experience and one you feel you have control over. Sometimes, however, knowing that you need to destress can be different than actually knowing how to destress. Check out this list of tips- theres sure to be one (or more) for nearly everyone! Relaxing Ways to Destress Breathe deeply.  It only takes a few minutes, but it can really help you achieve more positive mental health. Focus on inhaling and exhaling while trying to let all the stress in your brain slowly melt away.Put your headphones in and listen to some music.  Closing your eyes and relaxing while listening to some music can do wonders for your brain. Tuning out the world for even just five minutes can be a great way to lower your stress and increase your mental clarity.Daydream about your life after  graduation.  College can be overwhelming because there is so much to do all of the time. Let yourself daydream for a few minutes about what your dream life will be like after graduation. Dont worry about how youll make everything happen; just imagine the best possible scenario and the goals youre working so hard to achieve.Look through your personal pics online.  You can check out things youve posted on Facebook or elsewhere. Looking through your personal pics can warm your heart a nd cool your stress. Look through the pics you have on your phone.  Most people take a ton of pictures with their cell phone- and then forget all thats on there. Take a quick trip down memory lane while also giving yourself a break and a few minutes to relax.Read motivational quotations about college and education.  Sometimes, college life can simply seem- if not be- overwhelming. Give yourself some perspective by reading over some  motivational quotations about college  that can help remind you why you work so hard in the first place.Come up with a list of 10 things youve accomplished today/this week.  Sometimes people can get so focused on what they have left to do that theyve forgotten all the things theyve already done. Lower your stress by writing down at least 10 things youve accomplished today or this week. You just might surprise yourself!Take a quick shower.  Most of the time you shower to get clean. Today, however, take a shower to just relax yourself. Let the hot water massage your shoulders and try to imagine your stress being rinsed off and going down the drain, too. Take a quick bath.  If youre lucky enough to live in a place that has bathtubs, a quick bath can be a magical escape. Squirt some soap (or even shampoo) in for some bubbles and pretend youre somewhere far, far away.Wash your face.  If you dont have time for a bath or a shower, a quick face-wash can help wake you up, making you feel refreshed, and relax you- even if its just for a minute or two. If you dont have your soap handy, a quick splash of water will do.Give yourself a mani/pedi.  You dont have to escape to a nail salon to feel fancy. Grab some polish and give yourself a visual pick-me-up as a way to destress and focus on something fun and funky for a few minutes.Address the thing that is stressing you out the most.  Chances are, amidst all your stressors, theres at least one or two things that really stand out. Do at least one thing to address the biggest stress factor(s) in your life- even if its deciding not to worry about it until tomorrow. Active Ways to Destress Do some stretching.  You dont have to be a yoga teacher to know how to stretch. Whether youre in the library, the quad, or your room, a few minutes of slow, deep stretching can improve your mood immensely.Do some  yoga specifically catered to stress reduction.  Of course, if you do love yoga, you know how helpful some good stretching and breathing can be for your health. Take what youve learned in a yoga class and apply it at a time you need it most.Go for a walk.  It doesnt matter where you go- in fact, an aimless walk might be better than one with tasks assigned to it. Remove yourself from a stressful situation and enjoy a few minutes out and about.Go for a quick run.  Grab your shoes, throw on some running clothes, and get your stress out while hitting the pavement (or track or treadmill). A quick, high-intensity run can lower your stress and increase your energy for hours afterward.Go for a bike ride.  Who says you can only use your bike to get to and from class? Go f or a quick ride thats more fun than functional. Ride a skateboard.  If youre able to ride a skateboard on (or near) campus, this pastime can be a great break from your regular, stressful college routine.Clean up your desk.  Alright, it sounds lame, but wouldnt it be nice to start your homework with a nice, clean, organized desk? A clear space leads to a clear mind and cleaning up your desk can do wonders for your productivity.Clean up your room.  Even people who like clean rooms often dont like actually cleaning them. Set a timer for five minutes and see how much you can get done in that time. Youll get yourself moving, get your things organized, and get your head away from the source of your stress for at least a few minutes.Clean out your backpack.  Boring? Maybe. Well, actually ... totally boring. But doing something completely mindless that will result in feeling productive can be a great way to focus on something other than your stress.Do  some laundry.  You may not want to do it, but think of the benefits: Youll get yourself out of your current, stress-inducing project, youll get yourself moving, youll get a mental break from your more stressful tasks, and youll finally get some clean clothes. Dance.  For some, dancing can be a great escape from the stressors of everyday life. Dance to your hearts content for a few minutes before returning to your regularly scheduled tasks.Go for a walk and buy a cup of tea.  Sure, you may have some tea in your room, but sometimes the extra little splurge can be worth it. Youll get moving while also getting a break.Go for a walk and buy a cup of coffee.  If its looking like itll be a long night, go walk to the campus coffee shop and splurge on a cup o joe. Youll get your blood pumping while also getting a little caffeine in your system.Go for a walk and buy a healthy snack.  Sure, those french fries look delicious, but opting for a piece of fruit and some whole wheat toast from the dining hall will make you feel better, both physically and mentally.Go for a walk and treat yourself to, well, a treat.  Alright, lets be honest here: Sometimes you just need a candy bar. Take the long way to the vending machines before selecting a spe cial treat to pick you up and lower your stress, even if its just for a little while. Social Ways to Destress Call a friend and catch up for a few minutes.  Checking in with someone you hold near and dear can be great for your heart. Get the latest from your friend while also sneaking in a nice mental break, too.Send a friend an email.  Chances are that theres at least one friend you need to catch up with, but you may not have time right now for a phone call. Send a quick email letting them know the latest and greatest in your life. And if youre lucky, the next time you need a break, there will be an email from them, too!Send your parents an email.  Face it- you dont talk to your parents enough while youre away at school and theyd like you to  keep in touch more. If a phone call isnt going to work for you right now, zip them a quick email about whats going on with you.Send your sibling(s) an email.  Many students get so caught up in their lives in college that they forget to check in with their siblings. Take a moment or two to send along an update to your brother(s) and/or sister( s)- you might be surprised at how much better doing so makes you feel. Go hang out with other folks for a few minutes.  Even if youre on a tight deadline and feel like you cant spare a few minutes, guess what? You can. Spending a few minutes de-stressing with friends can help your productivity during the rest of the night.Find some friends and have everyone give everyone else a quick massage.  The power of a 3-minute neck and shoulder rub should never, ever be underestimated. Grab several folks, line up, and have everyone rub each others shoulders for a few minutes.Kiss your significant other.  The power of human touch can always help you destress. Grab your honey and enjoy a few minutes of lip-locking before getting back to what you have to do.Look at the events happening on campus this weekend.  If youre feeling overwhelmed with what you have to do between now and the weekend, looking at what options await you at the end of the tunnel can be a great way to destress. Check out an events calendar online or go for a quick walk and actually take t he time to read the posters and flyers everyone puts up all over the place. Make fun plans for the weekend.  If taking a break from campus is what your brain needs, make some fun plans for the weekend. Check out a local city guide or call a friend to see what the scoop is. Fun Ways to Destress Watch your favorite scene from your favorite movie on  YouTube,  Hulu, etc.  Even if you dont own your favorite movie, chances are you can find it online somewhere. Treat yourself to some old-fashioned escapism and tune out for a few minutes.Search for funny clips on YouTube.  Things go viral so quickly that theres always new stuff to watch. Put yourself on a time limit and watch ridiculous things to your hearts content.Create a new  Pandora  channel.  If you really need to work, incorporate ways to destress into your process. Create a new Pandora channel that will energize and refocus you as you work.Treat yourself to some new songs on iTunes.  Buying a few songs for a few bucks can perk you up, give you something fun to look forward to, and let you feel happy instead of stressed- both during and after your purchase.Play around on  Facebook.  Of course, the key here is only to do so for a few minutes. Losing 30 minutes when youre stressed can sometimes add more f uel to the fire. But spending a few minutes poking around can be a great break for your brain. Play around on  Twitter.  Even if youre new to Twitter, seeing what the buzz is at any point in time can be a fun diversion.Play around on  Flickr.  If youre a visual person, looking at cool pictures of things that make you happy can be a nice uplift for your heart- and a nice decrease for your blood pressure.Play around on  StumbleUpon.  StumbleUpon can be enjoyable because it takes you to new sites you may never have heard of but that other users, with interests similar to yours, have recommended. Its a great way to surf the web and find new sites without getting lost in a ton of junk.Read the national news headlines.  Reading the national news can be a great break for your mind while also helping to keep you informed of current events. If youre really lucky, the headlines you read today can be used during a class conversation tomorrow.Read the news headlines in your local town.  You may be so busy living your college life that you dont know what current events are in your new local town. Find out a little more about your home-away-from-home by checking out the local paper online. Read news headlines from your hometown.  What better way to get out of your little stress bubble at school than to learn about the happenings back in your hometown? Even the ads for local restaurants you havent thought about for months might cheer you up a bit.Play around on a gossip website for a few minutes (like  People).  Catching up on the latest celebrity news can be entertaining and provide a fun few minutes of escape.Catch up on the latest sports news.  Most students spend so much time reading homework in college that skimming the latest from the sports world isnt really an option. Check out whats happening with your favorite team, favorite sport, or favorite athlete for a few minutes.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Response Analysis About Girl Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Response Analysis About Girl - Essay Example However, some of these words of wisdom did not make any sense and sounded useless. In my society, a mother’s advice is very important especially to her daughters. The girls in my society rely on maternal guidance and this continues even after they marry. If a girl doesn’t behave properly, people will attribute the misconduct to her mother by saying that she wasn’t taught well. This eventually results to a tarnished family reputation that other members of the family must equally endure. In my opinion, I believe that everybody needs to be guided one way or another. Therefore, I will respond to this text and analyze it based on my own experiences and in contemplation of my cultural and social background. When I was a kid, we ate using our hands without any utensils such as spoons and knives. This never occurred to me as peculiar as it was to me, simply, the Arabian way to eat many types of food. Human nature predisposes me to follow my family’s adopted culture in many different things. As shown in the text, the mother told her daughter to â€Å"always eat your food in such a way that it won’t turn someone else’s stomach† (Kincaid, p. 200). I think that her mother overreacted in her warning. I believe that this advice is useless because it’s natural for us to follow our family habits when we eat because it was the way we were raised. In addition, it’s a bad way to impose on someone by telling her to consume her food in a way that it doesn’t upset somebody else’s appetite. This advice might affect someone negatively to an extent that she will be ashamed of eating in front of people. This personal response is based on a social fra mework in relation to people’s habits. The mother in this sentence shocked me by her rude language. I don’t think that any mother should call her daughter a "slut." â€Å"On Sunday, try to walk like a lady and not like the slut you are so bent on becoming† (p. 200). In my cultural

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Business Continuity Plan Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Business Continuity Plan - Assignment Example The plan formulated and implemented is specifically designed for the White House security staff. The staff is meant to ensure security of the White House is not breached. Plan Scenario Numerous possible scenarios may interfere with the security and normal functioning of the White House. Some of them may include: 1.Natural Calamities Examples include: Floods and Storms 2.Inadequate employees The inadequacy may be due to sickness and injuries, staff strikes or go slows, resignations and retrenchments. 3.Security Breaches Possible incidences include: intruder invasion, cyber-attacks and loss of data and hostile invasion among others. 4.Deficient Infrastructure Possible incidences include power outages, network outages and telecommunication equipment breakdown. Plan assumption The following assumptions will be made subsequent to the implementation of this policy: 1.Sufficient security personnel will be available at any given time at the expected assigned posts 2.An appropriate evacuation procedure will be in place in the event of possible security breach and onset of natural calamities. 3.Backup power generators and network boosters will be available at any particular moment. In the departments not affected, power and network should be maintained. 4.A data breach response team equipped with up to date strategies should be available when needed. Plan Section Recovery Strategy Summary The strategies to be undertaken are expected to neutralize the consequences of the scenarios.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Hospitality Essay Example for Free

Hospitality Essay I. Case Background Serving people is the foremost activity in hospitality, and being expertly served is the reasonable expectation of a guests. If theres any place where customers are likely to be paying attention to the type of service they receive, its within the hospitality industry. From restaurants to hotels, it is the job of the hospitality service provider to maintain customer happiness and satisfaction. Nowadays, it is not enough for a hospitality business to know that their guests were happy just receiving â€Å"thank you† or getting service with a smile, although it is the proper etiquette. Customer satisfaction isn’t just about the service. Satisfied customers are looking for a memorable experience and a dynamic service from the establishment they visited. Customer service begins the moment an individual calls your business, either to make a reservation or to gather information. High quality service means meeting and exceeding your guests expectations to feel warmly welcomed. While high-quality customer service requires that employees interact with guests in a friendly manner. They must perform their daily duties with a smile, responding appropriately to the guests needs. Complaints must be handled in an empathetic manner. When the guest is satisfied with his experience, the company earns revenue, return visits, new clientele and positive recommendations. One good thing if an establishment was able to exceed the expectations of the guest is customer loyalty. Customer loyalty is one of the most important keys to the restaurant’s success. Happy customers are the loyal customers. Not only is it important for a hospitality establishment to provide stellar service, but awesome products as well. A customer who has to continuously wait for a restaurant or a hotel, for example, to do their part may grow tired, no matter how loyal, and venture off to their competition. Keep customers loyal by focusing on them at all times. Customer loyalty leads to higher customer retention rate and to continuous business success even in situations where failure to satisfy customers would normally cause an early termination of business. Therefore the restaurant operation must focus not only on attracting first-time customers but also on developing long term relationship with customers. One of the negative results of an unsatisfied guest is the customer complaint. This is one thing that hospitality businesses try to avoid. Fairness is typically the biggest concern of customers who have lodged a service complaint. Because a service failure implies unfair treatment of the customer, service recovery has to re-establish justice from the customers perspective. Handling customer complaints doesnt have to always be a battle, with the right tools and responses an establishment can use complaints to their advantage. A hospitality establishment should always know how to properly handle customer complaints, this is to assure that the complaint of the guest was addressed properly and they will still be considered a repeat customer on their establishment. Giving the customers an outlet for telling the establishment about their poor experiences is one thing they could do. And make it a point to correct issues that went wrong and look into those that could stand some improvement. II. Time Context A week after the appointment of the new General Manager of Pauli’s Restaurant and Brewery, they received a comment in their corporate Web site from one of their customers. The problem takes place when one of the loyal customer experience lousy service when they dined in one Saturday night before they went into a theater and have a movie night. After experiencing that kind of service, they posted a comment in the customer feedback section of the website of the establishment so that they could address the problem immediately. III. Viewpoint In any establishment, managers should always take charge when there is problem regarding the guests. They should act immediately to the complaint of a guest to reduce the occurrence of much bigger problem that could hurt the operation of the establishment. After the manager did the first step, the staffs of the establishment should support the action of the manager to ensure that the problem can be avoided in the future. The overall in charge of the problem is the whole team in the establishment. If they don’t work and help one another, surely the problem they encounter in the past would still occur. IV. Problem Statement Pauli’s Restaurant and Microbrewery is a famous pub in the city. It has established a good position in the market. They have loyal customers who are repeatedly coming back to their establishment. The establishment operates a corporate Web site; one of its features is a customer feedback section that is sent directly to the corporate Vice President and to the appropriate general manager. Once they received a feedback from a customer where they complained about the lousy service they experienced when they dined in at the restaurant one evening. The guest was really disappointed because it is their first time to experience that kind of ridiculously slow service from the establishment usually they do not experience from their past dine in.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Maori Land Issues :: essays papers

Maori Land Issues It^s a known fact that land issues have always been a major topic within Maori and Pakeha race relations in New Zealand. The disputes go back to the 1800 when the Treaty of Waitangi was signed in 1840. According to the second article of the Treaty, land could only be sold to the Crown if the owners wished to sell them. Disputes over the government^s attempts to buy more land at very cheap prices that were below the value of the land was one of the many reasons that led to the New Zealand Wars in the 185os and 1860s. As a result of the wars, under the New Zealand Settlement Act in 1863, 800,000 hectares of Maori land was confiscated by the government as a punishment for those tribes who opposed the government. Bitterness over the land the Maori people lost and sorrow over the people who lost their lives made an ugly scar in the history of race relations in Aotearoa. With the Native Lands Act in 1862 individual purchase of Maori land was allowed. Although the confiscations caused bitterness and resentment among those affected tribes, the work of The Native Land Court led to far more land being lost, and this affected all tribes. The Native Land Court was set up in 1865 with the intention of getting rid of the communal ownerships of Maori land which was called individualisation so it could be sold more easily. The Court had the intended effect: land sales continues at an increasing rate. By 1911 only 10% of New Zealand^s 66 million acres remained in Maori hands. In 1900 James Carroll, the first Maori Minister of Native Affairs, passed a notable piece of legislation: a Maori Land Administration Act which set up a Council which was based on Carroll^s ^taihoa^ (wait and see) delaying policies. In the Council, Maori owners were in majority, to administer the lease of Maori land. The Council leased but sold very little land and this caused settler discontent and in 1905, the Council were replaced by a European dominated Boards. By the end of the Liberal^s time in office in 1912, a further 3 million acres of Maori land had been sold. Also Sir Apirana Ngata worked with James Carrolls on the Maori Councils Act in 1900. After the Act failed to help Maori people, Ngata decided that the best way he could change laws and policies that affected Maori was through parliament. In 1905 he won the seat for Eastern Maori. As an MP Ngata could

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

?Hong Kong Media Good

Although the rank of freedom of Hong Kong media is much higher than that of China, there are some exceptions to the general rule which states Hong Kong media are free whereas the mainland media are not free. On 6 June 12, a Attainment Square dissident, IL Wangling was found to commit suicide by hanging himself in the Human hospital without leaving any note. The suspect of Lie's death evokes all Hong Kong media to report the news at length, and hence the reporter of South China Morning Post Alex Price ran a full story about Lie's death.However, Wang Examining, the newly appointed editor-in-chief of SCAMP, reduced it into a brief Just before the issue of newspaper without informing him. Price wondered the reason and emailed Wang, but Wang didn't give any reasonable response and said Price knows what to do if he doesn't like this. It is believed that self-censorship was practiced because Wang is mainland born, and is a member of the Jill Provincial CAP. Beijing has influence on the issu e, and hence it makes people suspect the neutrality of SCAMP.Another example to show Begging's influence over the Hong Kong media is that a Shanghai column about the selection of Hong Kong Chief Executive was edited to totally different point of view from the columnist in order to show support to one of the candidates, Lung Chunk Yin, who regards as Pro-China candidate. The column was actually written by the columnist Luau You-sis whose column titled originally ‘Neither of them is the best candidate for the post of Chief Executive' but then was changed to ‘Lung is better than Tong.The original conclusion of the column is, it is no worth to support both of them, the fight between them doesn't help their rule of Hong Kong but worsen and this only makes people getting bad feeling on politics. However, it was edited to the version that, it is no worth to support Tong; Lung is the one who can do better so look forward to his future. Although Shanghai repost the original one n ext day, the explanation of doing such thing as was unacceptable.The last owner of Shanghai also has China background and hence it is believed that there is Begging's influence to affect the freedom of media in Hong Kong. Comparing to Hong Kong, the situation in China may be worse that mainland media are mostly controlled by authority; however, some exceptions also exist and those costly happen on the media Internet. GHz Riffing, the founder of the website People's Supervision which allows entities to expose the corruption of the authority, had uploaded a video of Lei Chemung, a Cocooning official, who was having sex with an 18-year-old lady and secretly recorded.The official then lost his Job due to the muck-raking. Although the website had been once blocked and was unable to be searched via mainland website Baud, GHz believes it was because the website had suffer pressure from Lei personal instead of from authority as KHz's website is now operate normally and GHz is still fee. Des pite of the exposure of the corruption of the authority, KHz's website and his account on social media Webb still working normally and are not controlled by the authority.Another example is about Shah Habit, member of the Communist Party of China Committee of Lubing City's Public Security Bureau, was accused of having amassed 192 houses in Hough and holding a false identity card by a local businessman Hung Junky. The documents about Chaos's double IDs are also exposed on the Internet which evokes not only the citizens but also the authority to investigate the issue. Shah has been sacked after this exposure and the authorities had decided to investigate comprehensively the problems exposed on the Internet.Same as the former example, although it exposes the corruption of authorities, the media haven't been control by authorities to cover the exposure. Overall, I think the freedom for media of both Hong Kong and mainland starts shifting. It is a good beginning for authorities to loosen the control on mainland media, but to Hong Kong media, over-practicing self- censorship only makes Hong Kong citizens revolted to mainland authorities.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Baby P, Health And Social

Peter Connelly also known as â€Å"Baby p† was killed on the 3rd august 2007 at the age of 1, by his stepdad Steven Barker. Baby P had suffered multiple injuries over the previous 8 months resulting in his death. In this piece of writing I will be investing who I think is to blame for Baby P’s death. The social services are to blame for the death of baby P because they were aware of the situation baby P was in and placed him on the at risk register. He went to live with a family friend because the GP spotted that he had bruises on his face and chest and mentioned it to the social services, and the mother was arrested.Tracey had suffered with post-natal depression and this is when the social services should have taken into account that she suffered from it and should have put it on her file and looked into it more. Haringey council had suspended two social workers for the misconduct in the case of baby peter. Social services had visited the home over 60 times and didnâ⠂¬â„¢t notice anything wrong, and didn’t take anything into account. However after watching panorama I learned that the mother had told the social services about the new man in her life but this was never mentioned to the police. The childminder phoned up the social worker to say that she could no  longer care for peter and the other sibling because of peters scalp infection and their head lice problems.The social worker phones Tracey and expressed their concern and that the infection was taking too long to clear up and that Tracey should take them to the GP as soon as possible. The police are to blame because they didn’t investigate when the GP said about his bruises. The metropolitan police did not do their job properly because they didn’t investigate the injuries and the staff at the schools where baby P’s brothers and sisters attended were not told by the police about the baby P’s circumstances or injuries.Police enquiries knew that at the ti me of peters death, the mum’s boyfriend, the lodger and is 15 year old girlfriend had been staying at her home since July 2007. The strategy meeting was attended by a social worker and a detective constable from the Metropolitan police. There was a clear concern about peters welfare and a decision was made that he could not return to the family home until the police investigation and enquires had been completed. The notes of the meeting showed that parents of peter had separated and that the mother had a ‘friend’ who was never left alone with the children.On the 13th December, both the social worker and police officer made a joint visit to the school to interview the two older children. Neither the school nor the health services had concern about their physical safety. During the visit to the hospital the police officer interview Tracey under caution, she told the officer multiple times that she didn’t know where the bruises were coming from and came up wi th explanations for where the bruises were from and she denied that she or her mother was responsible.Also on the 19th December the police arrested Tracey and peters grandmother, during their interview neither gave any explanations of how the injuries occurred but gave some possible causes previously. The police agreed that peter could go home once his mother had made alternative arrangements for the dogs The GP had failed peter because they didn’t take note of his abuse properly they made a few phone calls there and now but never fully reported it or tried to help peter.Jerome Ikwueke admitted having seen peter on numerous occasions, he disputes the claim he neglected his professional duty to look after the child. However he did complain about the bruising also Tracey spoke to Dr. Ikwueke saying that peter had grab marks on him and once again the GP ignored the warning sign. On 26th of July, the SW phoned Tracey after she visited the GP, according to Tracey the GP was unable to prescribe more antibiotics, and he was not concerned and thought that Peter had an allergic reaction the head lice treatment.The GP recognised the need for concern but did nothing about it because he thought that others would do something, and the child was being seen at the Child Development Centre in a few days. Haringey council failed baby P massively because they didn’t check if the mother had a boyfriend. Maria Ward fully aware he was on the council’s children at-risk list in them 6 months she was supposed to be looking after him there was a 4 month backlog of notes on his case. She was supposed to make announced and unannounced visits at least every two weeks but the general social care council found that she went 22 days without any contact at all.Maria Ward had no actual idea of where peter was for four days, she accepted his mothers excuse that they were in cricklewood caring for a ‘sick uncle’. If Miss. Ward hadn’t missed these unannou nced visits then she could have got a picture of what was happening and nothing crucial could have been missed. All Haringey had to say was sorry, which is not enough and will always carry the guilt of allowing such a vulnerable child to be abused and neglected when they could of done something about it.Also the paediatrician could have saved his life if she would have noticed his broken back, it was her last appointment of the day and instead of checking him thoroughly she just gave him a pass and didn’t bother examining him properly. If she would have taken her time, she could have saved peters life instead once again another service failed him. She stated that she couldn’t examine him properly because he was miserable and cranky and acted like a young child with a cold. She also added that he was sitting unsupported and there was no reason to suspect anything.On the other hand, a total of 19 doctors and health workers examined baby P on a total of 33 occasions in th e eight months before his death. Three of the doctors raised concern to the police that his injuries had been non accidental but the Crown Prosecution Service, which had received a report from Haringey social services supporting the boy's mother, decided there was not enough evidence to charge her. Her opinion was that the injuries were non-accidental in nature.This was very concerning for a nine month old baby; peter was  eventually registered on both physical abuse and neglect list. Tracey Connelly, peters mother was to blame because she knew what was happening and didn’t do anything about it. In 2009 she was charged and imprisoned for 6 years for allowing her son’s death. Tracey was born in 1981. When her parents split in 1984, their relationship was known to be violent, and both her and her brother witnessed domestic violence. Tracey classed her stepdad as her biological dad and when he died unexpectedly her brother had came to live with Tracey and his mum.He had been struggling with ‘challenging’ behaviour and was violent at school and towards his sister and also started offending, at the age of 10 she was placed on the child protection register under neglect. After having one of her children she suffered with post-natal depression and couldn’t cope with small children, when she visited the GP in 2005 and they referred her to the PCMHW, there had been concerns that she would suffer with post-natal depression but was not diagnosed.In September 2006, Tracey took peter to the surgery with a cough and nappy rash. The GP complained that baby P bruised easily, and that she might be accused of hurting him at this time peter was only 6 months old. Peter had visited the surgery and hospital at least 3 times that year on one occasion he went to the surgery with a head swelling and his mother stated that he fell down the stairs and got the swelling from that, the GP told her that he was going to refer peter to hospital.At the Whit tington Hospital a number of bruises were seen on peters body and was then documented on a body map. Peter was discharged from hospital on 15th December to the care of Tracey’s friend. On 5th march, the school nurse had called social works saying that they had observed Tracey and had witnessed her shouting at one of peters siblings and slapping their cheek, she was told she had to attend a parenting programme. However the social worker said that the mother and peter had a very strong relationship.In January 2007 Tracey attended their visit core meeting with peter alongside her and then the next interview happened on the 24th of Jan and agreed that if the injuries were non-accidental, it was not clear who the predator was. The family friend should have said something to police or the social worker when she noticed the abuse instead she kept quite. When peter was staying with her she noticed that he had bruises on his testes and claimed that they were from the hospital staff wh en they were doing a scan.The bruise on his buttocks had vanished. The family friend and peters mother agreed to a contract to find a childminder to assist with the childcare during the day, on June the 5th the family friend and peters mother met the team manager to sign a written agreement to the effect that Tracey and Peter would not be left alone together, there should also be a childminder for Peter and one of the other children on particular days.Jason Owen (the lodger) and his 15 year old girlfriend knew abuse was going on, they were arrested but only the Jason was charged, Jason who is a crack-cocaine addict, and a convicted arsonist who was accused of a raping a girl of 11, should have never been allowed to stay with the family but the social workers didn’t do any background checks on him. Jason was a very sick, twisted and psychotic person, he tortured his grandmother when he was growing up and did it again when she was 82, so she would change her will. The grandma o f Peter could have stopped the abuse from happening; she did take Peter into care for a few weeks.When peter was crying and scared he ran up to her and she just ignored him and walked away. She was scared of Steven and she saw some of the abuse attacks but did nothing about it. She should have known what it was like as she was abused by her dad when she was younger and was raped by a stranger; instead she ignored it and let Peter suffer. Steven Barker was definitely to blame because he was the one who carried the abuse out; he beat Peter constantly and made him petrified. Steven who was devoted to his Rottweiler Kaiser, treated Peter like an animal, teaching him to obey commands on how to sit, lie down, and if not, face the consequences.He took pleasure in regularly using the child as a punch bag and was said to have forced the boy to perform â€Å"Seig Heil† salutes as part of his fixation with the Nazis. He was obsessed with knives, martial arts weapons and kept a cross-bow as well as collection of Swastika memorabilia. He used to stride around his home in combat gear. As a child he enjoyed hurting animals and tortured guinea pigs and frogs – skinning the latter before breaking their legs. He kept two pet snakes at Tracey Connelly's home and fed them dead chicks, mice and rabbits.His fascination with causing pain to animals saw him prosecuted for that very obsession by the RSPCA. The social services never looked into Stevens’s background and if they would have done this procedure then maybe they would of taken peters abuse a lot more into consideration and would of taken him into care for re-homing. In my opinion, I think everyone who was involved with Peter’s death is to blame. If Haringey council would of taken action a lot more sooner this would of never happened, if the social workers looked into everyone’s background and found out the crucial things this would of not happened, that goes for the police as well.If the pa ediatrician would of cared to look Peter over, they would have found more injuries and then action would have been taken. Everyone in this case is to blame even if they didn’t do the abuse. The mother is a poor excuse of a human being; she let her child be beaten to death and all she had to say is I’m sorry, that is not good enough! More action should of be done to prevent this and hopefully in the future we will have more skilled people to run these crucial business and maybe they will stop another child from being abused.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Social Studies Questions and Answers essays

Social Studies Questions and Answers essays 1. What factors led to the emergence of a popular independence movement in India, and why did this movement lead to the establishment of two states, India and Pakistan, After achieving India's independence on August 15, 1946, the country faced many contradictory strains. On the one hand, too many people wanted India to proclaim itself a Republic with no allegiance to the British Crown, which ruled on India for 90 years. These people looked for an intense nationalist desire for an independent political, economic, and foreign policy path. "Long years ago, we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will wake to life and freedom." On the other hand, there were a lot of serious problems, since intellectuals, politicians and industrialists shared a broad consensus on the preferred directions of economy policy.The country also faced the challenge of forging a strong unified national identity and an effective state apparatus from the ravages of 1947 partition. The division of the formerly unified British colony into two separate nation states engendered tremendously disruptive population dislocations and unprecedented outbursts of religious hatred between communities that had peacefully coexisted for centuries despite occasional tensions. Perhaps one million people died in the process of splitting British India into two separate states: India and Pakistan. 2. How and why did the political evolution of Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil differ from each other? Until 1910 Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil shared a common history and similar cultures. In the first half of the twentieth century their economies followed parallel trajectories, but their political histories diverged radically. Mexico underwent a traumatic and profound social revolution....

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

How To Calculate Percent

How To Calculate Percent Calculating percent is a fundamental math skill, whether youre taking a class or just living life! Percentages are used to make car and house payments, calculate tips and pay taxes on goods. Percent calculations are fundamental to many classes, especially science courses. Heres a step-by-step tutorial on how to calculate percent. What Is Percent? Percentage or percent means per one hundred and expresses the fraction of a number out of 100% or the total amount. A percent sign (%) or the abbreviation pct is used to denote percentage. How To Calculate Percent Determine the total or whole amount. Divide the number to be expressed as a percent by the total.In most cases, youll divide the smaller number by the larger number.Multiple the resulting value by 100. Example Percent Calculation Say you have 30 marbles. If 12 of them are blue, what percent of the marbles are blue? What percent are not blue? Use the total number of marbles. This is 30.Divide the number of blue marbles into the total: 12/30 0.4Multiple this value by 100 to get the percent: 0.4 x 100 40% are blueYou have two ways to determine what percent are not blue. The easiest is to take the total percent minus the percent that are blue: 100% - 40% 60% not blue. You could calculate it, just like you did the initial blue marble problem. You know the total number of marbles. The number that is not blue is the total minus the blue marbles: 30 - 12 18 non-blue marbles.The percent that is not blue is 18/30 x 100 60%As a check, you can make sure the total of blue and non-blue marbles adds up to 100%: 40% 60% 100% Learn More How To Calculate Mass PercentHow To Calculate Percent Composition by MassPercent Error CalculationVolume Percent Concentration

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Could have the American Civil War been avoided Essay

Could have the American Civil War been avoided - Essay Example Slavery was something thought to be short lived, as the North and West grew exponentially with its specialized industries and the South continued to supply the cash crops of cotton, sugar, tobacco, etc. handled and processed by slaves the Northerners could not afford, and did not believe in keeping. As time wore on and the cotton gin was invented, slavery became even more deeply a part of Southern culture; it was protected under the Constitution (because slaves were personal property), and was impossible to amend. But slavery itself was a red herring. The main complaint of the South was that the North was gaining more power in the federal government and the South no longer had a voice. The North abolished slavery on moral grounds (apparently), but Andrew Jackson, when a Mississippi senator, stated blatantly that â€Å"It is not humanity that influences you†¦ it is that you may have a majority in the Congress of the United States and convert the Government into an engine of Nort hern aggrandizement†¦ you want by an unjust system of legislation to promote the industry of the United States at the expense of the people of the South.† (Epperson, Jim, 1996). Considering the complexities around the issue of slavery (mostly economic) and the desperation of the South to hold onto their slaves along with the general concern from the North of what to do with all the slaves if they were to be freed, it doesn’t seem possible that any mind sets could be changed to prevent the war even if the issue of slavery didn’t exist.

Friday, November 1, 2019

The place that we grow up in shapes our personality and our life Essay

The place that we grow up in shapes our personality and our life forever. Did you grow up in a rural town, in a crowded city, in - Essay Example I attended elementary school in this town, went for my first nature trail here, learned how to ride a bicycle and most importantly learned how to live with other people by interacting with the people of Flagstaff town. All my childhood memories are based on this beautiful town. The beautiful sceneries of Flagstaff and its caring community have influenced my persona and shaped my personality. The people of Flagstaff are warm and very friendly even to strangers. As I was growing up in Flagstaff, many of the people I interacted with believed that one should treat others the same way he or she would want to be treated. Their actions are filled with kindness and they conduct themselves with humility. The people of Flagstaff imparted these qualities on me when I was a child and I have lived to practice deeds that emulate them even when other people try to take advantage of my nature. My parents, who are Flagstaff natives, have treated other people respectfully and they have instilled the s ame on me by being a great example, thus demonstrating the manner in which I should conduct myself when interacting with other people. Flagstaff is considered one of the safest towns in Arizona as the criminal activities are isolated. The people of Flagstaff are very close and this aspect has helped them foster peace with one another. Every individual enjoys a close relationship with the people from the surrounding area, therefore, making perpetration of a crime, a difficult task. Some people from our neighborhood often joked that the little criminal activities present, were perpetrated by non-Flagstaff residents as they believed that the community did not host any criminals. Growing up in this community, one was taught to ask but never to obtain anything without the owner’s consent. My neighbor, an elderly woman, usually left her backdoor open so that the cool breeze could cool her house during the summer and no one took a piece her delicious pies without asking her for it. This is a tradition of the people of Flagstaff and assimilating it has led me to become an honest person who loves to interact with the people that I live with. Other people are able to trust me because I am able to foster honesty with them. Flagstaff is well-known for its scenic beauty, the mountainous outdoors, the nature trails and the ponderosa pine forests that make it an amenable place to camp. I fell in love with nature when I was still a kid and my father used to take my siblings and me for camping, mountaineering and mountain biking in the adjacent parks. Flagstaff is surrounded by various parks like Buffalo Park, Thorne Park and Wheeler Park, which provide great camping sites for the camping enthusiasts (Tripadvisor). It always turned out to be a great experience whenever my father took us camping as we were able to watch the different kinds of birds and animals during the day, and watch the constellations of stars at night. Camping in these areas of Flagstaff revealed tha t I had a passion for nature. Whether it was the beautiful green scenery filled with cold fresh air or it was the sandy, dry desert climate, it brought a feeling of calmness as I strolled peacefully across the environs of Flagstaff. The beautiful scenery of Flagstaff that is characterized by a pollution free environment inspired me to appreciate the environment for the many advantages associated with it. The natural beauty surrounding Flagstaff is phenomenal and the amazing places a person can

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Visual analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Visual analysis - Essay Example The advertisement is in the most appropriate color palette. Red is the dominant color, which stirs up the piquancy of the paint. It is a vibrant color that gives a fine texture especially with the mixture of grey and black. The blend of color brings an atmosphere of calmness and creativity, which easily sells the brand to customers. The paint clearly uses a balance of color in the cartoon drawings, words and the color of the drink. The black merges well with red, whereas grey and white adds some lure to the advertisement. The shape of the bottle, drawings and the cartoons also give an impression of fine art. They bring a balance of different forms of art that produce a wholly captivating paint. The rhythm of the clouds surrounding the bottle give the feeling that once a person takes the drink, then they will be in a jovial mood occasioned by the positive energy. This advertisement is a paint that aims at marketing Coca-Cola drinks. It is a design that evokes the positive energy that a person can get when they take the drink. The perfection in display is one of a kind, the type of advertisement that makes a person buy something because of the beauty in the advertisement. It is only fair to say that the paint convinces a person to take the drink and get the energy. Still, the drink in the bottle just looks as sweet as the mixture of colors used to paint it. The paint tells people that Coca-Cola is also an energy-drink. People love drinks that are exceptionally good to their health. Thus, it is with no doubt that, the artistic work exhibited in the advertisement gives the idea that it is the most appropriate drink to take and build energy to undertake different activities. This advertisement is visibly a heart-winner and effortlessly influences people into drinking Coca-Cola. However, if they would use a photo of a person taking the drink, it would be more appealing than it is now. The target

Sunday, October 27, 2019

The Deprivation Of Liberty Criminology Essay

The Deprivation Of Liberty Criminology Essay Deprivation of liberty should be regarded as a sanction or measure of last resort and should therefore be provided for only, where the seriousness of the offence would make any other sanction or measure clearly inadequate declares Principle 1 of the Council of Europes Recommendation Concerning Prison Overcrowding and Prison Population Inflation (Council of Europe, 1999). Despite these principles, various sources say that the prison population is on the boost in many parts of the world (U.K. Ministry of Justice, 2008; BJS, 2010; Clear, Cole Reisig, 2008, p.472; U.K. Home Office, 2003). And it is also predicted to increase in the coming years (U.K. Ministry of Justice, 2008; U.K. Home Office, 2003). At the same time it is interesting to note that, the prison population and growth rates vary considerably between different regions of the world, and even among different parts of the same continent (U.K. Home Office, 2003). An analysis of the global prison population rates reveals the following facts. In Africa the median rate for western and central African countries is 35 whereas for Southern African countries it is 231, the Americas the median rate for South American countries is 154 whereas for Caribbean countries it is 324.5, in Asia the median rate for south central Asian countries (mainly the Indian sub-continent) is 53 whereas for (ex-Soviet) central Asian countries it is 184, in Europe the median rate for southern European countries is 95 whereas for central and eastern European countries it is 229, in Oceania (including Australia and New Zealand) the median rate is 102.5 (Walmsley, 2008). These fluctuations and inconsistencies in the prison population rate raise many questions. The question concerning reasons for the increase and inconsistencies in the prison population is one of them. Professor Nicola Lacey argues in one of her paper that, across the developed world today, we see striking contrasts in the level of and quality of imprisonment. In 2006, imprisonment rates per 1, 00,000 of the population ranged from about 36 in Iceland to a staggering 725 in the U.Sà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.It is also generally explained that these differences cannot be explained in terms of crime rates, which unlike levels of imprisonment- have risen and fallen over the last 50 years in broadly similar ways in most advanced countries (2008, p. 9). Professor Lacey further says, These variations in punishment can be explained in terms of a differentiated model of varying forms of capitalist economy and democracy. Individualistic liberal economies such as the U.S, the U.K, Australia and New Zealand have over the last 50 years almost universally seen striking increase in the imprisonment rate, while coordinated market economies such as those of northern Europe and Scandinavia have seen, by and l arge, much more stable levels of imprisonment (2008, p. 9). The United States of America to be the nation with highest number of prison population in the world and United Kingdom is placed at seventeenth position where as the two coordinated market economies from Scandinavia, the Denmark and Norway occupies positions 129th and 133rd respectively (International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010a). In this backdrop, this essay attempts to analyse the increase in the prison population in late modern liberal market economies. The essay is divided into five parts. After the first part, which obviously is the Introduction, the second part analyses the prison population statistics from two individualistic liberal economies, the United States of America and the United Kingdom. This part also compares the prison population rates with crime rates. In the third part an attempt is made to identify reasons for the variation in the prison population rates in these economies. The fourth part analyses the desirability of stemming this upward trend in prison population and last part includes conclusion with few suggestions for lessening the prison population. In the following part, prison population rates of the two liberal market economies, i.e. the US and the U.K are analysed and then these rates are compared with crime rates. Prison Population in the U.S- At present, the United States imprisonment rates are now almost five times higher than the historical norm prevailing throughout most of the twentieth century, and they are three to five times higher than in other Western democracies (Clear Austin, 2009, p. 307). Contrary to the earlier views that the prison population was too less in the US, the increased population helped the US policy makers to have a broad consensus that Prison Population is too large. Many policy makers are also convinced, that the current system is no longer affordable due to pressing fiscal demands (Clear Austin, 2009, pp. 307- 308). The U.S. rate of incarceration of 702 inmates per 100,000 populations represents not only a record high, but situates this nation as the world leader in its use of imprisonment (Mauer, 2003). The statistics from the United States Bureau of Justice (BJS) also portrays a similar picture. It says that the number of adults in the correctional population has been increasing in the US (BJS, 2010). According to BJS statistics the population under correctional supervision reached a staggering 7.3 million in the year 2008. This is 3.2% of all U.S. adult residents. In other words it can be stated that 1 out of every 31 adults in U.S is under correctional supervision (BJS, 2010). The total prison population that was 3,715,800 in the year 1988 in various correctional supervision centres reached a total of 7,308,200 by 2008 (BJS, 2010). The following table illustrate the details of prison population from 1992 to 2007. Table 1. Prison population in the US Year Total prison population Prison population out of 1,00,000 of the total population 1992 1,295,150 (505) 1995 1,585,586 (600) 1998 1,816,931 (669) 2001 1,961,247 (685) 2004 2,135,335 (723) 2007 2,298,041 (758) Source: International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010d. The above given statistics shows the total prison population which was 1,295,150 in the year 1992 reached 2,298041 in the year 2007 which is an increase of 77.4% in the prison population. Similarly the number of people in every 100000 of the total national population in prisons was increased by 50% from 1992 to 2007 (International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010d). A search for the reasons for such a massive increase in the rates of people confined in prisons requires a search into the crime rates in USA during these years. It is because normally people tend to suppose that an increased crime rate would naturally also lead to an increased prison population rate. While analysing the crime rates in US during this period, the statistics confirm a decline in all the categories of crimes. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) reports show that the crime rates have been falling in U.S ever since 1980s (FBI, 2008; US Census, 2010). The following table shows the pattern of falling crime rate in US. Table 2. Crime rates in USA Year Murder and Non Negligent man slaughter rate Forcible Rape rate Robbery rate Aggravated Assault rate 1992 757.7 9.3 42.8 263.7 1995 684.5 8.2 37.1 220.9 1998 567.6 6.3 34.5 165.5 2001 504.5 5.6 31.8 148.5 2004 463.2 5.5 32.4 136.7 2007 466.9 5.6 30.0 147.6 Source: FBI 2008. The table given above evidently demonstrates that the crime rates have been declining in the USA under all categories. A similar fall can also be observed in other types of crimes, like property crime, burglary, larceny and motor vehicle theft cases (FBI, 2008). A comparative analysis of the rates of prison population and crime rates in the US proves that crime rates play only a minimal role in the increase of prison population rate. Prison Population in the United Kingdom- The United Kingdom is placed at seventeenth position in terms of population in prisons (International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010e). The following table illustrate the details of prison population in the United Kingdom from 1992 to 2009. Table 2. Prison Population in the U.K Year Total prison population Prison population out of 1,00,000 of the total population 1992 44,719 (88) 1995 50,962 (99) 1998 65,298 (126) 2001 66,301 (127) 2004 74,657 (141) 2007 80,216 (148) 2008 81,695 (152) 2009 82,893 (155) Source: International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010e Ministry of Justice Statistics bulletin, 2009. The above given data exhibits an increase of 79.3% in the prison population and 68% increase in the number of prisoners in every 100000 of the total national population from 1992 to 2007. More recently this increase has become more marked: the average prison population has increased by 85% since 1993. Like the US, in UK also the trend show that crime rose steadily from 1981 through to the early 1990s, peaking in 1995. Crime then fell, making 1995 a significant turning point. The fall was substantial until 2004/05. Since then crime has shown little overall change with the exception of a statistically significant reduction of 10 per cent in 2007/08 to mark the lowest ever level since the first results in 1981 (U.K. Home Office, 2008). The population of public sector prisons in England and Wales at the end of March 2008 was 72,651 (HMPS Annual Report and Accounts, 2007-2008). The prison population in England and Wales, including those held in police cells, was at a record high of 81,695 in 2008, while it increased to 82,893 prisoners in 2009 (Ministry of Justice Statistics bulletin, 2009). Like the US, in UK also the trend show that crime rose steadily from 1981 to the early 1990s, peaking in 1995. Crime then fell, making 1995 a significant turning point. The fall was substantial until 2004/05. Since then crime has shown little overall change with the exception of a statistically significant reduction of 10 per cent in 2007/08 to mark the lowest ever level since the first results in 1981 (U.K. Home Office, 2008). In UK also two main factors have been identified for the prison population. It is stated Offenders are being imprisoned who previously would have received community penalties; and those who would previously have been sent to prison are being given longer sentences. Between 1991 and 2001, the custody rate for magistrates courts increased from 5% to 16% and use of custody by the Crown Court rose from 46% to 64% (Hough; Jacobson Millie, 2003). The analysis in the preceding section shows a clear increase in the prison population rate both in USA and UK. The next part of this essay is an attempt to find an answer for this question -Reasons for the upward trend of the Prison Population in modern liberal market economies such as the USA and Britain? Scholars working on the area of prison population point out various reasons for its growth. There have much scholarly deliberations on the role of crime rate on the rate of growth of prison population. The main drivers for prison population growth in US and Britain are discussed as follows- Sentencing Policy- Very often sentencing policy of the state is cited as a reason for increased prison population. It is stated, In the 1970s, the prison population grew because the crime rate grew, resulting in greater numbers of people going to prison. In the 1980s, and stretching into the early 1990s, a host of sentencing policies restricted the use of probation as a sentence for felons, causing a substantial increase in the number of people entering prison during a period when crime rates were semi-stable (Blumstein Beck, 2005). It is further stated, After that, legislation that enhanced penalties for felonies greatly increased the average length of prison terms, which led to growing prison populations even as crime rates dropped and the number of people entering prison began to stabilize. The result was a growing backlog of people serving long sentences, who made up a permanent population base upon which the flow into and out of prison was grafted. The point is that the size of the prison populat ion is a matter of penal policy, and over the last thirty-six years, particularly, the United States has built a policy designed to grow prisons (Clear Austin, 2009, p. 312). The assassinations of Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King in US 1968, riots and political violence resulted in toughening of criminal justice and penal policy (Downes, 2001). US federal system and California passed laws in 1994 Three strikes and youre out, the strike-able offences included- murder, rape, robbery, arson and assaults. According to Zimrings article Imprisonment Rates New Politics, the three strike system led to nine times increase in the prison population including all of the other 26 three strike laws in US (Zimring, 2001). Penal commentators have tended to identify two factors namely change in climate of political public debates about crime punishment and; change in the legislative framework guidance within which sentences operate (Ashworth Hough, 1996; Dunbar Langdon, 1998). In February, 1993 drove public concern into public panic, the abduction and murder of a young child James Bulger, by two 10 year old boys, shocked England and there was demand to curb the delinquent tendencies of the new generation of ever younger and increasingly persistent offenders (Graham Moore, 2006). The new legislation, the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act, 1994 introduced stiffer penalties for juvenile offenders, including long term detention for 10-13 year olds, similar was done in section 53 of the Children and Young Persons Act, 1993. The introduction of three strike sentences in Britain, 1999 for burglars where a third time offender for burglary receives 3 years sentence automatically (Powers of Criminal Co urts (Sentencing) Act 2000; sec-111). These developments resulted in a substantial rise in juvenile custodial population and punitive responses to offending by children and young people (Graham and Moore, 2006). In Britain, theft and motoring offences were common for prisoners serving short sentences: violence, burglary and drugs offences were common for those sentenced for a year or more (Stewart, 2008). Many legal systems through their penal laws prescribe mandatory minimum punishment for various offences. Many appreciate the policy of mandatory sentencing claiming that such policy would reduce crime rates. Many also argue that such policies would provide uniformity in sentencing for similar crimes. But if this mandatory minimum punishment were too long a period in the prison, it would gradually increase the size of the prison population. The Iron Law of Prison Populations states that the size of a prison population is completely determined by two factors: how many people go to prison and how long they stay. If either of these factors changes, the size of the prison population will also change. The corollary to this iron law is equally important: There is no way to change the prison population without changing either the number of people who go to prison or how long they stay there (Clear Austin, 2009, p. 312). Unemployment, Poverty and Prison Population- Is there any nexus between the increasing prison population rates in USA and UK and the economic policies of these states? A possible relationship between unemployment, poverty, crime rate and resulting increase in the prison population rate has been analysed in many studies (Crow, et al, 1989; Box Hale, 1985). Box and Hale says One fairly orthodox view is that rising unemployment leads to crime and this in turn, assuming constant rates of reporting and recording of crimes, arrest, conviction and imprisonment sentences, leads automatically to an increase in prison population. (p. 209). Similarly it is also argued that unemployment contributes to an increase in crime rate and whenever employment schemes have been effectively implemented; these schemes have a containment effect to keep people from trouble (Crow, et al, 1989). Even though it is also contented that the menace of crime cannot be always linked to the subpopulation of the unemployed (Box Hale, 1985, p. 209), it is also ar gued that unemployment certainly is a factor though not in a direct way, but in an indirect and complex way (Crow, et al, 1989). Most commonly in US and to lesser extent in Britain the most influential explanation imputed rising crime and riots to newly jobless marauding underclass (Downes, 2001). Unemployment caused by the recent economic recession also increased the prison population according to some scholars. The disappearance of many secure jobs in the low-skilled or manufacturing sector after the collapse of Fordism led to the creation of a large minority of unemployed or insecurely employed people who were protected by the social welfare system. The economic exclusion of this large group, along with their sense of their own relative deprivation fed both rising crime and a heightened sense of insecurity and demand for punishment among those securely employed (Lacey, 2008, p 10). The concern with the crime and fear of victimisation has grown out of proportion ; fear which typic ally is most focussed on traditional street crimes and crimes allegedly committed by powerless minority groups across Europe and US, as increasing prison population consist of minorities and foreigners (Marshall, 1996). Politics of Tough on Crime- The policy to be tough on crime, tough on the cause of criminal was adopted by Britain from the Americans Democratic Partys approach (Pease, 1997; Ryan, 1999). In the U.K à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦from 1970s on, law and order has become a salient electoral issue; and on Tony Blairs accession to the position of shadow Home Secretary, Labour began to abandon its traditional analysis in favour of a tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime platform (Lacey, 2008, p 10). The situation being this political parties do not have much option except to be tough on crime. In particular the support for strong law and order policies among a growing number of floating median voters led to a situation in which criminal justice policy became highly politicised (Lacey, 2008, p. 10). The sad fact, moreover, is that the size and demographic structure of the prison population suggest that the socially exclusionary effects of the tough on crime part of the criminal policy equation have, in relation to a significa nt group of population systematically undermined the, inclusionary tough on the causes of crime aspiration. The rate of imprisonment has continued inexorably even in a world of declining crime (Lacey, 2008, p 11). New policies formulated by the Crime Disorder Act 1998, inspired from American zero tolerance policing and prosecution led to increase in prison population to approx 75,000 prisoners in 2003 (Downes, 2001; Home office, 2003). The large-scale imprisonment of drug offenders in US also became a major factor in prison population growth (Donzinger, 1996; Blumstein beck, 1999). The punitive response to drugs has been so potent, that drug trafficking lead to longer prison sentences than for homicide (Caplow Simon, 1999). Too many laws and too many crimes- Anthony Gregory, who is a Research Analyst at the Independent Institute, cites a different reason for Americas top rank in prison population. He says that it is because US have too many laws that prevent persons from enjoying their right to liberty, property, and the pursuit of happiness (Gregory, 2006). He says, Those who have committed no crime against person or property should be released from the jails and prisons. These include drug offenders, sex workers, those in possession of illegal guns, and anyone else who has hurt and threatened no one, whose only offence was to violate a victimless crime statute (Gregory, 2006). He further adds that As for minor property criminals, justice should be about making the victim whole, not about expensively caging people just to provide jobs for the prison guards, money for the bureaucracy, and talking points for tough-on-crime politicians (Gregory, 2006). It is also noted that the law enforcement oriented approaches in most of the Western Eur ope have caused persons sentenced for drug offences to make up an increased percentage of prison population (Dunkel van Zyl Smit, 2001). Even the use of remand and parole system contributed massively in prison population in both US and Britain. In UK, 2008 there were approximately 12,566 males and 874 females on remand, while only 1424 males and 96 females were held in prison for non-criminal offences (Home Office, 2008). Connecticut Department of Corrections Committee on Prison Overcrowding- In the year 2000, the Department of Corrections in the State of Connecticut constituted a Program Review Committee to study the main factors causing the prison overcrowding problem and the options available to the legislative and executive and judicial branches to control the growth of the inmate population (Connecticut General Assembly, 2000). The committee report showed most of the causes of prison overcrowding occurred outside the administration and jurisdiction of the Department of Correction and these complex issues and problems cannot be addressed by a single state agency (Connecticut General Assembly, 2000). The Committee identified five main causes of prison overcrowding- firstly, despite the decrease in arrest and crime rates, the number of offenders in prison or jail continued to increase due to the war on drugs, increased funding for police, increased role of victims and victim advocacy groups in the court process, recidivism and technical violations of probation and parole, harsher penalties for certain types of crimes, and alternative sanction options; secondly, convicted inmates were remaining incarcerated for a greater portion of their court-imposed prison sentences as a result of the shift from an indeterminate to a determinate sentencing structure, elimination of good time, creation of time-served standards for parole eligibility, and the enactment of several truth in sentencing initiatives; thirdly, the aggressive tough on crime approach supported by the legislature and adopted by the executive and judicial branches allows the criminal justice system to narrow its use of discr etion and take a more conservative and less controversial approach to punishment; fourthly, lack of prison beds, especially high security and pre-trial beds, forced Department of Corrections to operate at capacity and; lastly, poor planning and a lack of an accurate population projection and offender needs analysis contributed to the cycle of overcrowding and hampered Department of Corrections efforts to adequately plan for new or expanded facilities (Connecticut General Assembly, 2000). The concept of private prison also to some extent leads to increase in prison population. Private prison is a place where individuals are physically confined by private parties. Private prison companies enter into contractual arrangements with local, state, or federal governments that commit prisoners and then pay a per diem or monthly rate for each prisoner confined in the facility. Privatization of prisons refers both to the takeover of existing prison facilities by private operators and to the building and operation of new prisons by for-profit by prison companies. Proponents of privately run prisons argue that cost-savings and efficiency of private prisons are advantages over public prisons, even though doubts have been raised regarding the cost effectiveness of private prisons. An important criticism is that private prisons would lead to a market demand for prisoners and efforts by private companies to ensure prison population is on the rise. This may create a lobby of intereste d individuals who would purposely impede the cause of lessening of prison population. The reasons are many. It is more money for the private prisons management if they get more inmates. More number of inmates means more money from the State and the cheap prison labour (Smith, 1993). Desirability of Stemming Prison Overcrowding and Risks involved- One prominent reason for stemming prison overcrowding is that there seems to be little or no nexus between the duration a prisoner spends in the prison and his chances of reformation. Offender do not always reform and refrain from doing a crime after release. Prisoners do not become less likely to commit crimes upon release, increasing the prison release rate seems to have little disadvantage, certainly, some prisoners will commit crimes upon release (Jacobson, 2005, p. 310 311). The conclusion we can draw from this analysis is that the size of the prison population and the amount of crime are related, but not strongly. A tough on crime punishment policy decreases crime rate and provides a smooth functioning of the society and would also increase the efficiency of the market. But at the same time long imprisonment term is not related to the prisoners likelihood of staying crime free. The issue which requires deeper analysis is on the risks involved in increasing release rate and stem ming prison overcrowding. There are obvious advantages of imprisonment. Imprisonment is not totally undesirable; rather, imprisonment achieves most aims of punishment. The theories of punishment, such as the utilitarian, restorative, retributive and reformative justifications, suggest aims of punishment and look at punishment as a means to a definite end. These theories and justifications influence the penal policy of the state. Jeremy Bentham the prominent utilitarian says, The business of the government is to promote the happiness of the society, by punishment and rewarding , .. In proportion as an act tends to disturb that happiness, in proportion as the tendency of its pernicious will be the demand it creates for punishment (Bentham, 1789, Chapter 1). According to another author, The degree of punishment, and the consequence of a crime, out to be so contrived as to have the greatest possible effect on others, with the least possible pain to the delinquent.. (Baccana, 1809, Chapter 11). Similarly efforts have been made by scholars to analyse the purposes of punishment from an economic perspective. Richard Posner writes, The major function of criminal law in a capitalist society is to prevent people from bypassing the system of voluntary compensated exchange-the market, explicit or implicit- In situations where because transaction costs are low, the market is a more efficient method of allocating resources than forced exchangeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Most of the distinctive doctrines of criminal law can be explained as if the objective of that law were to promote economic efficiency (Posner, 1985, pp 1230-31). Core of Posners argument is that punishment is for market efficiency. Similarly the retributive justification considers that if a punishment is proportionate to the wrong that has been committed by the offender that is justifiable. The gravity of the punishment also needs to be viewed from the victims perspective (Kant, 1887). Crime is a major social problem. If the crime rate in an economy is uncontrolled, it will definitely affect the efficiency of its market. If an investor were given an option, he would definitely invest in that economy where his money would be secure and protected from criminals and mafias (Pyle, 2000). At the same time maintaining of prisoners for a long duration in the prisons is also viewed to be uneconomical (Clear Austin, 2009, p 307). The JFA report, provided ways to reduce prison population in US (Austin, 2007) the time served in prison should be reduced, technical parole and probation violators should not serve time in prison for such behaviour and people convicted for victimless crimes should not be sentenced to state prison as in case of drug offences etc (Austin, 2007, p 23-24). Thus, all these problems can be tackled and prison population can be controlled firstly, by bringing a change in the outlook of the people towards crime and punishment, so that less use of prison, instead use of alternative for prison should be made. A change in the legal and legislative framework of sentences is required, to bring down the custody rates and sentence lengths served by the offenders. Improvement in understanding of the various ranges of non-custodial penalties including the fine among sentences should be imposed (Hough, et al, 2003). In, addition imposition of day fines to be readily applied in US and Britain, as they have been successfully used in countries like Germany, Austria and Sweden to reduce the use of short prison sentences (Scottish Consortium on crime and Criminal Justice, 2005). Conclusion- From proactive and human rights perspective it is always desirable to stem overcrowding. The less likelihood of transformation as result of long term in prisons and continuing a tough on crime policy by the state requires a rethinking about the existing long-term punishment policy. It is suggested that prisoners can serve shorter sentences without triggering an increase in the crime rate. Furthermore, maintaining a large prison population does not necessarily significantly decrease the number of crimes committed (Jacobson, 2005, p. 311). According to Jacobson any solution to the problem of mass incarceration must begin with two points, firstly, programmatic tinkering has not reduced the prison population to date, and it will never have much effect, even under the most optimistic assumptions and secondly, to overcome mass incarceration requires that we incarcerate fewer people, reduce length of stay for persons placed on probation and parole and make greater use of fines, restitution, and community service in lieu of probation (Jacobson, 2005). If mass imprisonment is the problem then the solution is to change the laws that send people to prison and sometimes keep them there for lengthy terms, that is reducing the number going in, their length of stay, or both (Jacobson, 2005, p 316). Provision should be made for an appropriate array of community sanctions and measures, possibly graded in terms of relative severity; prosecutors and judges should be prompted to use them as widely as possible (Council of Europe, 1999, principle 2). It is also suggested that States should consider the possibility of decriminalising certain types of offence or reclassifying them so that they do not attract penalties entailing the deprivation of liberty (Council of Europe, 1999, principle 4). Measures aimed at combating prison overcrowding and reducing the size of the prison population need to be embedded in a coherent and rational crime policy directed towards the prevention of crime and criminal behaviour, effective law enforcement, public safety and protection, the in dividualisation of sanctions and measures and the social reintegration of offenders (Council of Europe, 1999).