Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Visual analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Visual analysis - Essay Example The advertisement is in the most appropriate color palette. Red is the dominant color, which stirs up the piquancy of the paint. It is a vibrant color that gives a fine texture especially with the mixture of grey and black. The blend of color brings an atmosphere of calmness and creativity, which easily sells the brand to customers. The paint clearly uses a balance of color in the cartoon drawings, words and the color of the drink. The black merges well with red, whereas grey and white adds some lure to the advertisement. The shape of the bottle, drawings and the cartoons also give an impression of fine art. They bring a balance of different forms of art that produce a wholly captivating paint. The rhythm of the clouds surrounding the bottle give the feeling that once a person takes the drink, then they will be in a jovial mood occasioned by the positive energy. This advertisement is a paint that aims at marketing Coca-Cola drinks. It is a design that evokes the positive energy that a person can get when they take the drink. The perfection in display is one of a kind, the type of advertisement that makes a person buy something because of the beauty in the advertisement. It is only fair to say that the paint convinces a person to take the drink and get the energy. Still, the drink in the bottle just looks as sweet as the mixture of colors used to paint it. The paint tells people that Coca-Cola is also an energy-drink. People love drinks that are exceptionally good to their health. Thus, it is with no doubt that, the artistic work exhibited in the advertisement gives the idea that it is the most appropriate drink to take and build energy to undertake different activities. This advertisement is visibly a heart-winner and effortlessly influences people into drinking Coca-Cola. However, if they would use a photo of a person taking the drink, it would be more appealing than it is now. The target

Sunday, October 27, 2019

The Deprivation Of Liberty Criminology Essay

The Deprivation Of Liberty Criminology Essay Deprivation of liberty should be regarded as a sanction or measure of last resort and should therefore be provided for only, where the seriousness of the offence would make any other sanction or measure clearly inadequate declares Principle 1 of the Council of Europes Recommendation Concerning Prison Overcrowding and Prison Population Inflation (Council of Europe, 1999). Despite these principles, various sources say that the prison population is on the boost in many parts of the world (U.K. Ministry of Justice, 2008; BJS, 2010; Clear, Cole Reisig, 2008, p.472; U.K. Home Office, 2003). And it is also predicted to increase in the coming years (U.K. Ministry of Justice, 2008; U.K. Home Office, 2003). At the same time it is interesting to note that, the prison population and growth rates vary considerably between different regions of the world, and even among different parts of the same continent (U.K. Home Office, 2003). An analysis of the global prison population rates reveals the following facts. In Africa the median rate for western and central African countries is 35 whereas for Southern African countries it is 231, the Americas the median rate for South American countries is 154 whereas for Caribbean countries it is 324.5, in Asia the median rate for south central Asian countries (mainly the Indian sub-continent) is 53 whereas for (ex-Soviet) central Asian countries it is 184, in Europe the median rate for southern European countries is 95 whereas for central and eastern European countries it is 229, in Oceania (including Australia and New Zealand) the median rate is 102.5 (Walmsley, 2008). These fluctuations and inconsistencies in the prison population rate raise many questions. The question concerning reasons for the increase and inconsistencies in the prison population is one of them. Professor Nicola Lacey argues in one of her paper that, across the developed world today, we see striking contrasts in the level of and quality of imprisonment. In 2006, imprisonment rates per 1, 00,000 of the population ranged from about 36 in Iceland to a staggering 725 in the U.Sà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.It is also generally explained that these differences cannot be explained in terms of crime rates, which unlike levels of imprisonment- have risen and fallen over the last 50 years in broadly similar ways in most advanced countries (2008, p. 9). Professor Lacey further says, These variations in punishment can be explained in terms of a differentiated model of varying forms of capitalist economy and democracy. Individualistic liberal economies such as the U.S, the U.K, Australia and New Zealand have over the last 50 years almost universally seen striking increase in the imprisonment rate, while coordinated market economies such as those of northern Europe and Scandinavia have seen, by and l arge, much more stable levels of imprisonment (2008, p. 9). The United States of America to be the nation with highest number of prison population in the world and United Kingdom is placed at seventeenth position where as the two coordinated market economies from Scandinavia, the Denmark and Norway occupies positions 129th and 133rd respectively (International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010a). In this backdrop, this essay attempts to analyse the increase in the prison population in late modern liberal market economies. The essay is divided into five parts. After the first part, which obviously is the Introduction, the second part analyses the prison population statistics from two individualistic liberal economies, the United States of America and the United Kingdom. This part also compares the prison population rates with crime rates. In the third part an attempt is made to identify reasons for the variation in the prison population rates in these economies. The fourth part analyses the desirability of stemming this upward trend in prison population and last part includes conclusion with few suggestions for lessening the prison population. In the following part, prison population rates of the two liberal market economies, i.e. the US and the U.K are analysed and then these rates are compared with crime rates. Prison Population in the U.S- At present, the United States imprisonment rates are now almost five times higher than the historical norm prevailing throughout most of the twentieth century, and they are three to five times higher than in other Western democracies (Clear Austin, 2009, p. 307). Contrary to the earlier views that the prison population was too less in the US, the increased population helped the US policy makers to have a broad consensus that Prison Population is too large. Many policy makers are also convinced, that the current system is no longer affordable due to pressing fiscal demands (Clear Austin, 2009, pp. 307- 308). The U.S. rate of incarceration of 702 inmates per 100,000 populations represents not only a record high, but situates this nation as the world leader in its use of imprisonment (Mauer, 2003). The statistics from the United States Bureau of Justice (BJS) also portrays a similar picture. It says that the number of adults in the correctional population has been increasing in the US (BJS, 2010). According to BJS statistics the population under correctional supervision reached a staggering 7.3 million in the year 2008. This is 3.2% of all U.S. adult residents. In other words it can be stated that 1 out of every 31 adults in U.S is under correctional supervision (BJS, 2010). The total prison population that was 3,715,800 in the year 1988 in various correctional supervision centres reached a total of 7,308,200 by 2008 (BJS, 2010). The following table illustrate the details of prison population from 1992 to 2007. Table 1. Prison population in the US Year Total prison population Prison population out of 1,00,000 of the total population 1992 1,295,150 (505) 1995 1,585,586 (600) 1998 1,816,931 (669) 2001 1,961,247 (685) 2004 2,135,335 (723) 2007 2,298,041 (758) Source: International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010d. The above given statistics shows the total prison population which was 1,295,150 in the year 1992 reached 2,298041 in the year 2007 which is an increase of 77.4% in the prison population. Similarly the number of people in every 100000 of the total national population in prisons was increased by 50% from 1992 to 2007 (International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010d). A search for the reasons for such a massive increase in the rates of people confined in prisons requires a search into the crime rates in USA during these years. It is because normally people tend to suppose that an increased crime rate would naturally also lead to an increased prison population rate. While analysing the crime rates in US during this period, the statistics confirm a decline in all the categories of crimes. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) reports show that the crime rates have been falling in U.S ever since 1980s (FBI, 2008; US Census, 2010). The following table shows the pattern of falling crime rate in US. Table 2. Crime rates in USA Year Murder and Non Negligent man slaughter rate Forcible Rape rate Robbery rate Aggravated Assault rate 1992 757.7 9.3 42.8 263.7 1995 684.5 8.2 37.1 220.9 1998 567.6 6.3 34.5 165.5 2001 504.5 5.6 31.8 148.5 2004 463.2 5.5 32.4 136.7 2007 466.9 5.6 30.0 147.6 Source: FBI 2008. The table given above evidently demonstrates that the crime rates have been declining in the USA under all categories. A similar fall can also be observed in other types of crimes, like property crime, burglary, larceny and motor vehicle theft cases (FBI, 2008). A comparative analysis of the rates of prison population and crime rates in the US proves that crime rates play only a minimal role in the increase of prison population rate. Prison Population in the United Kingdom- The United Kingdom is placed at seventeenth position in terms of population in prisons (International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010e). The following table illustrate the details of prison population in the United Kingdom from 1992 to 2009. Table 2. Prison Population in the U.K Year Total prison population Prison population out of 1,00,000 of the total population 1992 44,719 (88) 1995 50,962 (99) 1998 65,298 (126) 2001 66,301 (127) 2004 74,657 (141) 2007 80,216 (148) 2008 81,695 (152) 2009 82,893 (155) Source: International Centre for Prison Studies, 2010e Ministry of Justice Statistics bulletin, 2009. The above given data exhibits an increase of 79.3% in the prison population and 68% increase in the number of prisoners in every 100000 of the total national population from 1992 to 2007. More recently this increase has become more marked: the average prison population has increased by 85% since 1993. Like the US, in UK also the trend show that crime rose steadily from 1981 through to the early 1990s, peaking in 1995. Crime then fell, making 1995 a significant turning point. The fall was substantial until 2004/05. Since then crime has shown little overall change with the exception of a statistically significant reduction of 10 per cent in 2007/08 to mark the lowest ever level since the first results in 1981 (U.K. Home Office, 2008). The population of public sector prisons in England and Wales at the end of March 2008 was 72,651 (HMPS Annual Report and Accounts, 2007-2008). The prison population in England and Wales, including those held in police cells, was at a record high of 81,695 in 2008, while it increased to 82,893 prisoners in 2009 (Ministry of Justice Statistics bulletin, 2009). Like the US, in UK also the trend show that crime rose steadily from 1981 to the early 1990s, peaking in 1995. Crime then fell, making 1995 a significant turning point. The fall was substantial until 2004/05. Since then crime has shown little overall change with the exception of a statistically significant reduction of 10 per cent in 2007/08 to mark the lowest ever level since the first results in 1981 (U.K. Home Office, 2008). In UK also two main factors have been identified for the prison population. It is stated Offenders are being imprisoned who previously would have received community penalties; and those who would previously have been sent to prison are being given longer sentences. Between 1991 and 2001, the custody rate for magistrates courts increased from 5% to 16% and use of custody by the Crown Court rose from 46% to 64% (Hough; Jacobson Millie, 2003). The analysis in the preceding section shows a clear increase in the prison population rate both in USA and UK. The next part of this essay is an attempt to find an answer for this question -Reasons for the upward trend of the Prison Population in modern liberal market economies such as the USA and Britain? Scholars working on the area of prison population point out various reasons for its growth. There have much scholarly deliberations on the role of crime rate on the rate of growth of prison population. The main drivers for prison population growth in US and Britain are discussed as follows- Sentencing Policy- Very often sentencing policy of the state is cited as a reason for increased prison population. It is stated, In the 1970s, the prison population grew because the crime rate grew, resulting in greater numbers of people going to prison. In the 1980s, and stretching into the early 1990s, a host of sentencing policies restricted the use of probation as a sentence for felons, causing a substantial increase in the number of people entering prison during a period when crime rates were semi-stable (Blumstein Beck, 2005). It is further stated, After that, legislation that enhanced penalties for felonies greatly increased the average length of prison terms, which led to growing prison populations even as crime rates dropped and the number of people entering prison began to stabilize. The result was a growing backlog of people serving long sentences, who made up a permanent population base upon which the flow into and out of prison was grafted. The point is that the size of the prison populat ion is a matter of penal policy, and over the last thirty-six years, particularly, the United States has built a policy designed to grow prisons (Clear Austin, 2009, p. 312). The assassinations of Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King in US 1968, riots and political violence resulted in toughening of criminal justice and penal policy (Downes, 2001). US federal system and California passed laws in 1994 Three strikes and youre out, the strike-able offences included- murder, rape, robbery, arson and assaults. According to Zimrings article Imprisonment Rates New Politics, the three strike system led to nine times increase in the prison population including all of the other 26 three strike laws in US (Zimring, 2001). Penal commentators have tended to identify two factors namely change in climate of political public debates about crime punishment and; change in the legislative framework guidance within which sentences operate (Ashworth Hough, 1996; Dunbar Langdon, 1998). In February, 1993 drove public concern into public panic, the abduction and murder of a young child James Bulger, by two 10 year old boys, shocked England and there was demand to curb the delinquent tendencies of the new generation of ever younger and increasingly persistent offenders (Graham Moore, 2006). The new legislation, the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act, 1994 introduced stiffer penalties for juvenile offenders, including long term detention for 10-13 year olds, similar was done in section 53 of the Children and Young Persons Act, 1993. The introduction of three strike sentences in Britain, 1999 for burglars where a third time offender for burglary receives 3 years sentence automatically (Powers of Criminal Co urts (Sentencing) Act 2000; sec-111). These developments resulted in a substantial rise in juvenile custodial population and punitive responses to offending by children and young people (Graham and Moore, 2006). In Britain, theft and motoring offences were common for prisoners serving short sentences: violence, burglary and drugs offences were common for those sentenced for a year or more (Stewart, 2008). Many legal systems through their penal laws prescribe mandatory minimum punishment for various offences. Many appreciate the policy of mandatory sentencing claiming that such policy would reduce crime rates. Many also argue that such policies would provide uniformity in sentencing for similar crimes. But if this mandatory minimum punishment were too long a period in the prison, it would gradually increase the size of the prison population. The Iron Law of Prison Populations states that the size of a prison population is completely determined by two factors: how many people go to prison and how long they stay. If either of these factors changes, the size of the prison population will also change. The corollary to this iron law is equally important: There is no way to change the prison population without changing either the number of people who go to prison or how long they stay there (Clear Austin, 2009, p. 312). Unemployment, Poverty and Prison Population- Is there any nexus between the increasing prison population rates in USA and UK and the economic policies of these states? A possible relationship between unemployment, poverty, crime rate and resulting increase in the prison population rate has been analysed in many studies (Crow, et al, 1989; Box Hale, 1985). Box and Hale says One fairly orthodox view is that rising unemployment leads to crime and this in turn, assuming constant rates of reporting and recording of crimes, arrest, conviction and imprisonment sentences, leads automatically to an increase in prison population. (p. 209). Similarly it is also argued that unemployment contributes to an increase in crime rate and whenever employment schemes have been effectively implemented; these schemes have a containment effect to keep people from trouble (Crow, et al, 1989). Even though it is also contented that the menace of crime cannot be always linked to the subpopulation of the unemployed (Box Hale, 1985, p. 209), it is also ar gued that unemployment certainly is a factor though not in a direct way, but in an indirect and complex way (Crow, et al, 1989). Most commonly in US and to lesser extent in Britain the most influential explanation imputed rising crime and riots to newly jobless marauding underclass (Downes, 2001). Unemployment caused by the recent economic recession also increased the prison population according to some scholars. The disappearance of many secure jobs in the low-skilled or manufacturing sector after the collapse of Fordism led to the creation of a large minority of unemployed or insecurely employed people who were protected by the social welfare system. The economic exclusion of this large group, along with their sense of their own relative deprivation fed both rising crime and a heightened sense of insecurity and demand for punishment among those securely employed (Lacey, 2008, p 10). The concern with the crime and fear of victimisation has grown out of proportion ; fear which typic ally is most focussed on traditional street crimes and crimes allegedly committed by powerless minority groups across Europe and US, as increasing prison population consist of minorities and foreigners (Marshall, 1996). Politics of Tough on Crime- The policy to be tough on crime, tough on the cause of criminal was adopted by Britain from the Americans Democratic Partys approach (Pease, 1997; Ryan, 1999). In the U.K à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦from 1970s on, law and order has become a salient electoral issue; and on Tony Blairs accession to the position of shadow Home Secretary, Labour began to abandon its traditional analysis in favour of a tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime platform (Lacey, 2008, p 10). The situation being this political parties do not have much option except to be tough on crime. In particular the support for strong law and order policies among a growing number of floating median voters led to a situation in which criminal justice policy became highly politicised (Lacey, 2008, p. 10). The sad fact, moreover, is that the size and demographic structure of the prison population suggest that the socially exclusionary effects of the tough on crime part of the criminal policy equation have, in relation to a significa nt group of population systematically undermined the, inclusionary tough on the causes of crime aspiration. The rate of imprisonment has continued inexorably even in a world of declining crime (Lacey, 2008, p 11). New policies formulated by the Crime Disorder Act 1998, inspired from American zero tolerance policing and prosecution led to increase in prison population to approx 75,000 prisoners in 2003 (Downes, 2001; Home office, 2003). The large-scale imprisonment of drug offenders in US also became a major factor in prison population growth (Donzinger, 1996; Blumstein beck, 1999). The punitive response to drugs has been so potent, that drug trafficking lead to longer prison sentences than for homicide (Caplow Simon, 1999). Too many laws and too many crimes- Anthony Gregory, who is a Research Analyst at the Independent Institute, cites a different reason for Americas top rank in prison population. He says that it is because US have too many laws that prevent persons from enjoying their right to liberty, property, and the pursuit of happiness (Gregory, 2006). He says, Those who have committed no crime against person or property should be released from the jails and prisons. These include drug offenders, sex workers, those in possession of illegal guns, and anyone else who has hurt and threatened no one, whose only offence was to violate a victimless crime statute (Gregory, 2006). He further adds that As for minor property criminals, justice should be about making the victim whole, not about expensively caging people just to provide jobs for the prison guards, money for the bureaucracy, and talking points for tough-on-crime politicians (Gregory, 2006). It is also noted that the law enforcement oriented approaches in most of the Western Eur ope have caused persons sentenced for drug offences to make up an increased percentage of prison population (Dunkel van Zyl Smit, 2001). Even the use of remand and parole system contributed massively in prison population in both US and Britain. In UK, 2008 there were approximately 12,566 males and 874 females on remand, while only 1424 males and 96 females were held in prison for non-criminal offences (Home Office, 2008). Connecticut Department of Corrections Committee on Prison Overcrowding- In the year 2000, the Department of Corrections in the State of Connecticut constituted a Program Review Committee to study the main factors causing the prison overcrowding problem and the options available to the legislative and executive and judicial branches to control the growth of the inmate population (Connecticut General Assembly, 2000). The committee report showed most of the causes of prison overcrowding occurred outside the administration and jurisdiction of the Department of Correction and these complex issues and problems cannot be addressed by a single state agency (Connecticut General Assembly, 2000). The Committee identified five main causes of prison overcrowding- firstly, despite the decrease in arrest and crime rates, the number of offenders in prison or jail continued to increase due to the war on drugs, increased funding for police, increased role of victims and victim advocacy groups in the court process, recidivism and technical violations of probation and parole, harsher penalties for certain types of crimes, and alternative sanction options; secondly, convicted inmates were remaining incarcerated for a greater portion of their court-imposed prison sentences as a result of the shift from an indeterminate to a determinate sentencing structure, elimination of good time, creation of time-served standards for parole eligibility, and the enactment of several truth in sentencing initiatives; thirdly, the aggressive tough on crime approach supported by the legislature and adopted by the executive and judicial branches allows the criminal justice system to narrow its use of discr etion and take a more conservative and less controversial approach to punishment; fourthly, lack of prison beds, especially high security and pre-trial beds, forced Department of Corrections to operate at capacity and; lastly, poor planning and a lack of an accurate population projection and offender needs analysis contributed to the cycle of overcrowding and hampered Department of Corrections efforts to adequately plan for new or expanded facilities (Connecticut General Assembly, 2000). The concept of private prison also to some extent leads to increase in prison population. Private prison is a place where individuals are physically confined by private parties. Private prison companies enter into contractual arrangements with local, state, or federal governments that commit prisoners and then pay a per diem or monthly rate for each prisoner confined in the facility. Privatization of prisons refers both to the takeover of existing prison facilities by private operators and to the building and operation of new prisons by for-profit by prison companies. Proponents of privately run prisons argue that cost-savings and efficiency of private prisons are advantages over public prisons, even though doubts have been raised regarding the cost effectiveness of private prisons. An important criticism is that private prisons would lead to a market demand for prisoners and efforts by private companies to ensure prison population is on the rise. This may create a lobby of intereste d individuals who would purposely impede the cause of lessening of prison population. The reasons are many. It is more money for the private prisons management if they get more inmates. More number of inmates means more money from the State and the cheap prison labour (Smith, 1993). Desirability of Stemming Prison Overcrowding and Risks involved- One prominent reason for stemming prison overcrowding is that there seems to be little or no nexus between the duration a prisoner spends in the prison and his chances of reformation. Offender do not always reform and refrain from doing a crime after release. Prisoners do not become less likely to commit crimes upon release, increasing the prison release rate seems to have little disadvantage, certainly, some prisoners will commit crimes upon release (Jacobson, 2005, p. 310 311). The conclusion we can draw from this analysis is that the size of the prison population and the amount of crime are related, but not strongly. A tough on crime punishment policy decreases crime rate and provides a smooth functioning of the society and would also increase the efficiency of the market. But at the same time long imprisonment term is not related to the prisoners likelihood of staying crime free. The issue which requires deeper analysis is on the risks involved in increasing release rate and stem ming prison overcrowding. There are obvious advantages of imprisonment. Imprisonment is not totally undesirable; rather, imprisonment achieves most aims of punishment. The theories of punishment, such as the utilitarian, restorative, retributive and reformative justifications, suggest aims of punishment and look at punishment as a means to a definite end. These theories and justifications influence the penal policy of the state. Jeremy Bentham the prominent utilitarian says, The business of the government is to promote the happiness of the society, by punishment and rewarding , .. In proportion as an act tends to disturb that happiness, in proportion as the tendency of its pernicious will be the demand it creates for punishment (Bentham, 1789, Chapter 1). According to another author, The degree of punishment, and the consequence of a crime, out to be so contrived as to have the greatest possible effect on others, with the least possible pain to the delinquent.. (Baccana, 1809, Chapter 11). Similarly efforts have been made by scholars to analyse the purposes of punishment from an economic perspective. Richard Posner writes, The major function of criminal law in a capitalist society is to prevent people from bypassing the system of voluntary compensated exchange-the market, explicit or implicit- In situations where because transaction costs are low, the market is a more efficient method of allocating resources than forced exchangeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Most of the distinctive doctrines of criminal law can be explained as if the objective of that law were to promote economic efficiency (Posner, 1985, pp 1230-31). Core of Posners argument is that punishment is for market efficiency. Similarly the retributive justification considers that if a punishment is proportionate to the wrong that has been committed by the offender that is justifiable. The gravity of the punishment also needs to be viewed from the victims perspective (Kant, 1887). Crime is a major social problem. If the crime rate in an economy is uncontrolled, it will definitely affect the efficiency of its market. If an investor were given an option, he would definitely invest in that economy where his money would be secure and protected from criminals and mafias (Pyle, 2000). At the same time maintaining of prisoners for a long duration in the prisons is also viewed to be uneconomical (Clear Austin, 2009, p 307). The JFA report, provided ways to reduce prison population in US (Austin, 2007) the time served in prison should be reduced, technical parole and probation violators should not serve time in prison for such behaviour and people convicted for victimless crimes should not be sentenced to state prison as in case of drug offences etc (Austin, 2007, p 23-24). Thus, all these problems can be tackled and prison population can be controlled firstly, by bringing a change in the outlook of the people towards crime and punishment, so that less use of prison, instead use of alternative for prison should be made. A change in the legal and legislative framework of sentences is required, to bring down the custody rates and sentence lengths served by the offenders. Improvement in understanding of the various ranges of non-custodial penalties including the fine among sentences should be imposed (Hough, et al, 2003). In, addition imposition of day fines to be readily applied in US and Britain, as they have been successfully used in countries like Germany, Austria and Sweden to reduce the use of short prison sentences (Scottish Consortium on crime and Criminal Justice, 2005). Conclusion- From proactive and human rights perspective it is always desirable to stem overcrowding. The less likelihood of transformation as result of long term in prisons and continuing a tough on crime policy by the state requires a rethinking about the existing long-term punishment policy. It is suggested that prisoners can serve shorter sentences without triggering an increase in the crime rate. Furthermore, maintaining a large prison population does not necessarily significantly decrease the number of crimes committed (Jacobson, 2005, p. 311). According to Jacobson any solution to the problem of mass incarceration must begin with two points, firstly, programmatic tinkering has not reduced the prison population to date, and it will never have much effect, even under the most optimistic assumptions and secondly, to overcome mass incarceration requires that we incarcerate fewer people, reduce length of stay for persons placed on probation and parole and make greater use of fines, restitution, and community service in lieu of probation (Jacobson, 2005). If mass imprisonment is the problem then the solution is to change the laws that send people to prison and sometimes keep them there for lengthy terms, that is reducing the number going in, their length of stay, or both (Jacobson, 2005, p 316). Provision should be made for an appropriate array of community sanctions and measures, possibly graded in terms of relative severity; prosecutors and judges should be prompted to use them as widely as possible (Council of Europe, 1999, principle 2). It is also suggested that States should consider the possibility of decriminalising certain types of offence or reclassifying them so that they do not attract penalties entailing the deprivation of liberty (Council of Europe, 1999, principle 4). Measures aimed at combating prison overcrowding and reducing the size of the prison population need to be embedded in a coherent and rational crime policy directed towards the prevention of crime and criminal behaviour, effective law enforcement, public safety and protection, the in dividualisation of sanctions and measures and the social reintegration of offenders (Council of Europe, 1999).

Friday, October 25, 2019

A Clockwork Orange by Antony Burgees :: essays research papers

A Clockwork Orange by Antony Burgees (written 1962) 1, Summary: The story is set in the seventies. The leading character and also the narrator is Alex, a very violent and cruel 15 year old boy. He and his friends Georgie, Pete and Dim murder, rob, torture and rape for fun. Alex is the leader of their gang. Alex and his friends arrive at an old cottage in the countryside and play a trick. Dim pretends to be wounded and an ambulance is very necessary. The trick works out, when the women opens the door the four rush in and torture her and her husband till they are lying on the floor. Then they leave the house. Alex loves Ludwig van Beethoven. Each time when he listen to his music he sees people who are murdered and woman who are raped. When he meets his friends he notices that there is some kind of tension between them. Then the start a new tour were they find a great house for playing a trick. They play the same trick but at that time the old woman in the house is suspicious and doesn’t open the door. So Alex goes alone through the window. While he steals some things, the woman phones the police. As they meet each other they start fighting. Alex quite kills the old lady and the police arrest him. He is found guilty for murder and should go to prison for fourteen years. After almost two years in prison he hears about a new program which is called â€Å"Ludovico’s technique†. It is supposed to change bad into good. So he volunteers for the program. They choose him and take him to a room where he has to see very cruel films, for example Japanese torture or the crimes of the Nazis. In some films they also play the music of Beethoven. He has to see two films per day and also gets injections. The injections makes him feel intense pain all in his body. As the time came when Alex only associates pain with the violent lifestyle he has, he is released. He enters a world which has totally changed since his arrest. He goes to the library and there he sits next to a man who he has violated before his arrest. The man attacks him. When the policeman came he notices that the two policemen are Dim and Billyboy.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Bound Together and the Issues on Globalization

Nayan Chanda (2007), on the book â€Å"Bound Together: How Traders, Preachers, Adventurers, and Warriors Shaped Globalization† describes the history of globalization as a process that has existed even during the early civilizations of the world. The book is divided into sections that narrated different stories about how traders, preachers, adventurers and warriors were able to initiate the process of globalization. As has been recognized by Chanda (2007), as early as human beings â€Å"migrated from Africa and dispersed throughout the world,† they have established various ways to reconnect with each other.For Chanda (2007) the process of globalization is synonymous to â€Å"interconnectedness and interdependence† which took place thousands of years ago. The story opens on the scenario where the writer and his wife arrived to New Haven, Connecticut and have an electrician to fix some electrical outlets at their new home. The electrician, named Jerry, asked Chanda about what he is doing at Yale. Chanda answered his question citing that he is working with the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization. Jerry's reaction to such answer was different because he have his negative perception about the word â€Å"globalization.† As Jerry uttered â€Å"Isn't it true that globalization destroys the rain forest? † (Chanda, 2007, p. ix). From this encounter, Chanda realized that indeed, the word globalization has earned different definitions and connotations which made it complicated and incomprehensible for many average individuals. Thus, Chanda's book â€Å"Bound Together: How Traders, Preachers, Adventurers, and Warriors Shaped Globalization† is a result of his personal quest for understanding the concepts related to globalization.It attempts to answer the questions: who are the globalizers and how does globalization originates. Looking at the history of civilization, Chanda (2007) begins his story of globalization on the journey of modern humans out from Africa fifty thousand years ago. The primary reason for relocating and reconnecting with other dispersed human communities grew out of the necessity for survival. The first chapters of the book narrate the stories of different group of people such as traders, preachers, adventurers, and warriors on how they manage to reconnect with other dispersed communities.From merely finding new trade route to the ambition of expanding their empires, these group of people were able to establish interconnectedness with other group of people, community, country and continents. Chanda (2007) also allocated a chapter explaining why the word â€Å"globalization† happened to be associated with negative meanings. From merely being synonymous to â€Å"interconnectedness of the world,† globalization is now being linked to the â€Å"destruction of the world. † Chanda (2007) was able to identify that the term â€Å"globalization† is being widely used a s early as 1960s. In fact, this word had been included in the English vocabulary in 1961.However, it was not until 1990s when such world had been recognized around the world. Chanda (2007) identified that the word started to gain negative connotation due to different economic problems that have spawned during the process of globalization. Chapter nine of the book talks about individuals, groups and organizations who are afraid of globalization. Although many countries have experienced economic growth and prosperity brought by rapid economic integration – being one of the process of globalization – there are some people who regarded globalization as a toxic and evil process.Some people from â€Å"Seattle to Cancun and Genoa to Hong Kong† were complaining about the â€Å"undemocratic institutions and unfair policies† associated with globalization (Chanda, 2007, p. 271). On final chapter of the book, Chanda (2007) provided a summary of the process of globali zation and have identified some problems that are likely to occur both in present time and the near future. Chanda (2007) identified that the speeding pace of globalization left behind many individuals and countries in the third world, as individuals and countries from develop world continues to progress.Globalization and Some Related Experiences Living in this modern world, no one is excused from experiencing both the positive and negative effects of globalization. Although Chanda (2007) was able to clearly define the pure meaning of globalization, being a process of interconnectedness and interdependence, the impact of globalization has been often perceived to be negative by many workers , immigrants, and inhabitants of poor countries like Africa. I happened to watch the movie â€Å"The Constant Gardener† which depicts the poor condition of African men, women and children.Some people belonging to the British High Commission transacted a business with one of the largest phar maceutical company in the United States, Karel Delacourt Hudson or much known as KDH. Part of the program of British High Commission and KDH is to launch a new discovered medicine that would cure individuals infected with AIDS/HIV. Although the intension is good, the program's process is evil. KDH chose Africa as the pilot â€Å"medical testing center† for Dypraxa, a newly invented medicine that would cure AIDS/HIV.A free medical mission was conducted in an African community with high prevalence of AIDS/HIV. Since the effectiveness of the medicine is still unknown, African women and children were treated as â€Å"testing rats† whose life seems not worthy if their body fails to respond according to what is expected. After a series of â€Å"medication† the effects of medicine turned out to be worse as many Africans died after taking the Dypraxa medicine. While the people of Africa are mourning for the death of their beloved, the pharmaceutical company owners conti nuously conduct their experiment.This only shows that there are capitalists and powerful people who prefer to utilize the marginalized group for their own advantage and economic good. Poor people who fall for the trap of capitalists are left with no choice but to comply accordingly with their orders, as these capitalists can manipulate or deny the poor access to their basic needs. Moreover, the film also shows how the governments of United States and Britain are being manipulated by some capitalists in order to become economically abundant.While the government wants to create jobs and to secure the health of its citizens, there are capitalists who would take advantage of a situation that would favor the economic interest of businessmen. Such is one of the unjust consequences of globalization. When advantaged people preferred to use â€Å"interconnectedness and interdependence† to gain economically even if the lives of marginalized individuals are at stake. As Chanda (2007) wr ote, â€Å"The paths of commerce are followed by diseases {and problems]; Africa and to some extent Latin America have been further impoverished as [other parts of the world] have been enriched†.Moreover, it is disheartening to see individuals who could not afford to eat even one good meal for a day; who could not have the opportunity to learn even how to read and write; who could not avail medical services; and who could not adapt on the rapid changes occurring around their simple environment. While other individuals, especially the capitalists and elitists, are enjoying the fruitful reward of globalization to their economic status, the marginalized people are suffering from poverty, hunger, diseases and illiteracy.Only few individuals from the marginalized sectors were able to survive and adapt on the past changes and developments brought by globalization. The struggles of small workers who are mostly from third world countries who are looking for a job that would give them better pay, especially in developed countries, are also alarming such that skilled migrants workers are not strongly secured when working outside their home country. I have met some skilled workers from other countries and was able to know some of their experiences.I came to discover that the globalization process enables them to work in other countries as international relations between countries allows the entry of workers in foreign land. However, with regard to security of tenure, living and benefits as worker, the process of globalization is still unable to guarantee good working conditions for migrant skilled workers. As Chanda (2007) noted, â€Å"Fair is the treatment of globalization, yet the sorry condition of Africa and other parts of the world does not quite fit in with the positive consequences attributed to globalization.† In addition, migration experiences like the experiences of traders and adventurers are good if such experience was able to satisfy the goal o f the migrating individual. Yet on some parts of the world, interconnectedness and interdependence are not perceived positively by some people. For them the process of globalization only permits the exploitation of the natural and human resources of one's country. As I have visited one of the countries in the third world, I feel unwelcome as some of the people out there are against Whites.They perceived Whites as the main actors of globalization and thus the only people who could benefit from such process. Like Jerry, I am often confused and being surprised everytime I do hear the word â€Å"globalization. † Due to past experiences and negative encounters with other groups of people, I came to perceive that globalization is an evil thing. Instead of uniting the people and countries around the world, globalization causes many individuals and countries to hate one another.Instead of interconnectedness and interdependence, some people, including me, perceive globalization as an instrument that would prevent connectedness and dependence to other countries due to unbalanced progress associated with globalization that is occurring on different parts of the world. As developed countries are continuously progressing, other countries are regressing such that poverty, diseases and other epidemic or phenomena brought by the collapse of a country's economy are negatively affecting marginalized citizens of a particular country.Poor and illiterate people are always identified as victims of unjust economy. Reflections on Chanda's Bound Together Upon reading Chanda's book â€Å"Bound together: How traders, preachers, adventurers, and warriors shaped globalization,† I have realized that indeed globalization is neither an evil word nor an unjust process. The history of globalization brought dispersed countries into a state of civilization and economic improvement.However, inevitable occurrences in economic system and the private interest of few powerful individual s altered the positive attributes of globalization, interconnectedness and interdependence. If all people, would only realize the benefits we could reap from becoming active agents of globalization, this process would not be hard and unjust. Globalization has indeed dominated most parts of the world. Many countries are now enjoying the fruits that came from exchanges of culture, knowledge, information, products, services, economic and social activities with others.Most relationships or interconnectedness with other countries permitted economic transactions that paved ways to product and services exchanges which in turn caused progress on both countries. If only the pure reason associated with ancient globalization could be improved and if only the process of globalization could better consider the marginalized, other people and countries would not hesitate to become cooperative with the process.In addition, if people could find better ways of adapting the changes associated with glo balization, the problem of velocity would not have taken its place. As Chanda (2007) wrote, â€Å"The big difference that marks globalization of the early years with that of the present are in velocity. Yet life in every country today is so inextricably intertwined with the rest of the world that failure to appreciate this interdependence and its long-term effects could risk the world's drifting toward a major crisis.† Since globalization is becoming increasingly inevitable, the only choice left for every people and country is to work towards the attainment of the globalization's objective: integration, interconnectedness and interdependence. Indeed, Chanda's book has enlightened me the real process and objective of globalization. Such that negative perceptions about globalization turned into a positive one. Moreover, the book helped me gain better understanding and futuristic view of globalization in this society.The progress of every country is still possible if globalizati on would be practiced in such a way that it would develop the economical, political and social relations of every country. Since globalization is inevitable, the only task left for every individual is to work towards development and progress for the betterment of everyone in the community and the world as a whole. References Chanda, N. (2007). Bound together: How traders, preachers, adventurers, and warriors shaped globalization. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press. Dir. Fernando Meirelles. Perfs. Ralph Fiennes, Rachel Weisz. (2005). The Constant Gardener.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

People, Organizations and Society Essay

Most people are individually different from one another it varies from behavior, character, attitude, lifestyles and importantly the social status. We sometimes ask ourselves why are there many people who have bad traits and good traits and sometimes having diverse mood swings and frame of mind. Different theories coming from different psychiatrist and psychologist are the concrete foundation of behavioral factors. In order for us to understand the behavior of every human being, it is better to describe the two types of conditioning which involves learning process and behavior, the classical conditioning and operant conditioning. We will discuss the similarities and dissimilarities of these two types of conditioning and further relates these two to many dimensional examples of an individual’s behavior and also that of an animal pattern of behavior. Defining Classical and Operant Conditioning In order to explore the clarity of classical and operant conditioning, it is healthier to examine and define the subject from which they are strongly associated and originated which is learning. Classical and operant conditioning has several similarities on learning such as the process of extinction, unprompted recovery, stimulus conclusion, biasness and superior directive condition or secondary reinforcement. Also, it is similar because they both generate basic occurrence and phenomena which is acquisition which result in the inheritance of a behavior (SocialPC). Classical and operant conditioning are similar in some ways but they do varies in a few ways and are equally dependable method to explain and educate a person or an animal in a specific situation. Learning is any comparatively lasting transformation in behavior and manners generated by an experience (MegaEssays, 2007). These two conditioning are the two types of several theories on learning. Classical conditioning is an important type of learning which was uncovered by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist who emphasized this observable fact through his experiments on the digestive patterns in dogs (Heffner, 2004). It is a connection of one occurrence or happening with another that results in a pattern of behavior (MegaEssays, 2007). A classic example of this phenomenon is the research done by Pavlov on his dog in which he discovered a dog’s drive to produce saliva while responding to a certain stimuli, in which a reaction or spontaneous effect that was unconscious and unintentional. When he rang a bell and was offered a food to the dog, the dog recognized it and associated the food with the bell. In this case, the bell is the conditioned stimulus while food was an unconditioned stimulus. In addition, classical conditioning often linked with muscles and reflexes and instincts. It is a very important component of a training program in which we can comprehend and figure out conditioned and unconditioned stimulus or reinforcement, species exact behaviors, inducing dislike stimuli, and feelings (2007). It is significant in understanding in dealing with problems relating to fear. Another finding confirmed the thought that we build up reactions to certain stimuli that are not naturally occurring, for example when we touch a hot stove, our response is to remove our hands back from the hot stove but now some people who already experienced after getting burned tend to pull their hands back even when the stove is turned off. This lead to Pavlov’s conclusion that people tend to relate or connect one particular experience which caused a person to simplify their reaction to one stimuli into an impartial stimuli in which it is matched with. In short, a stove burner is often associated with an expression in pain like ouch and then stove is equal to burner hence, a stove is also equal to an expression like ouch (Heffner, 2004). A lot of people’s behavior these days is formed by the combination of stimuli according to Heffner. Some observations and experience like the smell of a perfume or a particular scent, a certain song and things has been paired with a specific person or group like families, friends, ex-lover, loved ones, or a particular event or happening. These connections controls and influence us to a certain extent and in fact we have been conditioned classically (Heffner, 2004). On the other hand, operant conditioning is a type of learning experience which involves on how an organism functions or operates in a particular environment, learning here takes place as a consequence of behavior. This was termed used by Skinner in explaining the results of the consequences of a particular behavior on the future incidents or happenings of that behavior (MaricopaCenter, 1999). There are four types of operant conditioning: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction. In order to explain it further, an example could better explore its meaning; a cat was placed inside a box which has a single exit and entrance. The box has only one button to be pressed to open the door, the cat strived to get out from the box since freedom here is reinforced. In its effort to escape, the area of the box was set off and the door opens which leads the cat to be released from the enclosed box. But this does not end the story, the experience of the cat once placed again in the box, the cat will immediately escape since the cat will immediately recall the experience last time and will once locate again the button to push. Learning from experience is the concept from the example, the cat learned from the experience through natural results and how to achieve or acquire the reinforcing freedom (Heffner, 2004). Let’s pick a broader and relevant experience in the past, several times the Philippines were colonized by different conquerors and explorers and this colonization was strongly connected with harassment, violence, sexual abuse of women, forced labor, poverty and many more. The initial reaction is to obey and follow because freedom here is not welcome. Food and water is scarce and people would rely on the given ration, in order to get that food, one must steal more food to accumulate one’s hunger. Once again, freedom is reinforced here. The people of this nation once weakened but tried to learn from their experience not to be placed in a box where freedom is impartial. They have to press a button like the cat to open the door for freedom and find the answer from that experience. It’s like every individual who naturally encountered past mistakes presumably that individual will recall that mistake when things similar to that situation happens again. Same situation for positive outcome is true where effects from that outcome you did last time will likely do that same again. Four types of operant conditioning (Heffner, 2004): Positive reinforcement: this happening is often associated to anything stimulus which strengthens the probability of a specific response which are expressed in praise or rewards. A good example is when a parent appreciated a child’s good work after they have done something positive like cleaning their own room. This will increase the possibility that the same reaction will be repeated. Negative reinforcement: this constitute on the elimination of a particular negative stimulus which is reinforcing in order to increase a response. An example of this is a nagging mother who always scolded her daughter or son to clean their house every week. After telling and complaining to their friends about the distressing words it counters and lastly performs the chore and eventually stopped the nagging. Punishment: this refers to adding together something induced dislike in order to lessen a behavior. Disciplining by way of spanking is the most common example of a specific misconduct. Punishment is disliked and will surely avoid it by behaving in a good manner. Extinction: When something is removed so as to lessen a behavior is called extinction. Example is when a child owns and addicted to a teddy bear which irritates a child’s asthma will likely to react initially but for the parents it is positive that the teddy bear be removed to decrease levels of negative outcome like grasping for air when sniffed a fabric or cotton from the teddy bear. Relevance and application to business sector: In the business sector these two types of learning method has a significant advantage and guarantee positive outcome in the future. Less emphasis on classical conditioning, the operant conditioning is more likely to apply in designing a training course or let’s say changing an employee from a specific behavior in the workplace. Since operant conditioning involves on how it operates in a certain environment and learning takes place as a result of the behavior, we will be more focused on the positive reinforcement which is a very good tool for improving an employee on its negative behavior in the workplace. However, there are times that positive reinforcement would not work so other method can be used such as negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction. Let’s take a common example of a negative manner seen in an employee like tardiness, sleeping, delayed reports, absenteeism, abuse of policies and many other unnecessary manners. In order to alleviate and ease the tension in the way it is practiced, the management can formulate a positive reinforcement like giving importance to the people who always come on time and are constantly prompt in coming to the office. This can be done through rewards and additional compensation and acknowledgement. While those employees who are intensively late all the time despite of warnings from the management should be more reprimanded and disciplined by giving them penalty. The concept of punishment is generated here to reduce tardiness and eventually employees will dislike the penalty or punishment and surely avoid the misconduct by coming on time and perform their duties in a timely manner. Negative reinforcement may or may not work as a method to prevent misconduct in a workplace since it dismays or disappoints an employee because it’s sometimes involves verbal reinforcement to decrease negative stimulus, this is more applicable to a parent-child relationship but for employees, it’s not lasting and holistic and possibly produce a unprincipled outcome.